SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF THE 2014 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES: Science of Ice – Inquiry Guide (Grades 7-12) Print

Objective:

Students will investigate questions and engineering design problems about the freezing point depression of water and how to design a model rink with ice that has certain qualities.


Introduction Notes:

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF THE 2014 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES

Science of Ice

 

INQUIRY GUIDE for HANDS-ON INVESTIGATIONS

Middle School Focus / Adaptable for Grades 7–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the National Science Foundation.

 

Background and Planning Information.............................................................. 2

About the Video....................................................................................................................... 2

Video Timeline ........................................................................................................................ 2

Next Generation Science Standards........................................................................................ 2

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy...................................... 3

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry................................................................................. 3

Explore Understanding............................................................................................................ 3

Ask Beginning Questions......................................................................................................... 3

Design Investigations............................................................................................................... 4

            Possible Materials........................................................................................................ 4

            Open Choice Approach................................................................................................ 4

            Focused Approach........................................................................................................ 5

            Adapt for High School.................................................................................................. 6

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence.......................................................................................... 7

Present and Compare Findings............................................................................................... 7

Reflect on Learning.................................................................................................................. 7

Inquiry Assessment.................................................................................................................. 7

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry........................................................... 8

Explore Understanding............................................................................................................ 8

Identify Problems..................................................................................................................... 8

Design Investigations............................................................................................................... 8

            Possible Materials........................................................................................................ 8

            Open Choice Approach................................................................................................ 9

            Focused Approach...................................................................................................... 10

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence........................................................................................ 11

Present and Compare Findings............................................................................................. 11

Reflect and Redesign.............................................................................................................. 12

Inquiry Assessment................................................................................................................ 12

Copy Masters ................................................................................................. 13

Open Choice SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students............................................................... 13

Focused SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students....................................................................... 14

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students........................................ 16

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students................................................ 17

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations...................................................................... 19

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Background and Planning

 

About the Video

Science of Ice discusses some of the physical and chemical properties of solid water—ice—and how this substance is produced to optimize performance for a particular ice sport. Ken Golden, a mathematician at the University of Utah, and Todd Porter, the Facility Manager at the Utah Olympic Oval, explain how the structure and thickness of ice, as well as amount of salt and other impurities in it, determine its slipperiness—an important factor for hockey players, skaters, sledders, and curlers alike. How slippery a sheet of ice is depends on its pre-melt, or loosely bound molecules that exist in a quasi-liquid state at the ice surface. Several 2014 Olympic athletes also explain the type of ice they prefer while competing.

 

Video Timeline

0:00     0:14     Series opening

0:15     0:31     Introducing ice as a competitive playing surface

0:32     1:04     Introducing Golden, his research, and the slipperiness of the surface of ice

1:05     2:04     Visualizing the hydrogen bonds and the molecular structure of ice

2:05     2:23     Explaining what pre-melt is and why it is important in ice sports

2:24     2:55     Introducing Porter and the importance of rink ice qualities

2:56     3:25     Explaining the importance of filtration in rink ice qualities

3:26     3:52     Explaining how brine chills the concrete slab over which ice is frozen

3:53     4:02     Relating the thickness of ice affects its hardness

4:03     5:06     Athletes and statistics describing how the temperature of the ice varies

5:07     5:22     Closing credits

 

Language Support: To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

Matter and Its Interactions

MS-PS1-1. Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.

MS-PS1-4. Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

 

Engineering

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

 

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MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

 

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy –

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

 

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 13.

 

Explore Understanding

If possible, show students examples of different forms of ice. For example, you could bring in snow, shaved ice, crushed ice, a frosty glass, and ice cubes that have different clarities. If you cannot use real examples in class, show students photographs of different forms of ice. Use the following prompts to help students understand that the forms of ice have different properties yet are made primarily of water molecules.

       I’ve seen ice that looks like….

       Snow is different from ice in that….

       Snow is the same as ice in that….

       Different uses for ice are…

       Different forms of ice have different properties because….

       The molecules of liquid water and solid ice might look like….

 

Show Science of Ice and encourage students to jot down notes while they watch. Continue the discussion of the conversion of the molecular structure of ice and how ice is made in Olympic venues. Also begin discussing how the properties of ice can be changed. Use prompts such as the following:

       When I watched the video, I thought about….

       The experts in the video explained that _____ happens because….

       Water molecules form hydrogen bonds because….

       A crystal lattice is….

       Pre-melt forms because….

       Water used to make ice is filtered because….

       Brine freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water because….

       Two ways that ice can be different are….

 

Ask Beginning Questions

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these questions…. Then, ask groups to list questions they have about the science of ice. Ask groups to

 

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choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to be researchable and/or testable. The following are some examples:

       Why does adding salt to water lower its freezing point?

       How does the cleanliness of water affect the properties of ice?

       How does the amount of salt added to a brine solution affect its freezing point?

       How does the temperature of ice affect its properties?

       How do the shapes of ice crystals depend on the crystal lattice of water?

 

Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation. In this inquiry, students might investigate how adding salt to water lowers the freezing point of water. Students would need water, ice, table salt (or rock salt or sugar), cups or self-sealing freezer bags to hold the water and ice, thermometers, and a way to measure the mass or volume of the materials. If students are interested in studying how the cleanliness of water affects the properties of ice, students would need distilled water, cups, and materials to add to the water such as sand, salt, or sugar. Students will also need access to a freezer. Tools such as thermometers, magnifying lenses, vice grips, and force sensors may be used to measure the properties of the brine solution or of the ice. Balances can be used to measure the masses of water, salt, or any other substances used. Make sure students understand how to use these tools and measurement devices safely.

 

Safety Considerations: To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 13)

1.     Groups might come together to agree on one question for which they will explore the answer, or each group might explore something different. Some ideas include investigating how the cleanliness of water affects the smoothness or hardness of ice, how the amount of salt added to a brine solution changes the freezing point of the solution, and how the temperature of ice affects its hardness.

2.     Give students free rein in determining how they will explore their chosen question, such as one that pertains to the freezing point depression of water. To help students envision their investigations use prompts such as the following:

       The materials we will use are….

       We will change the properties of the brine solution by….

       We will measure the freezing point of the brine solution by….

       We will repeat our test _____ times to determine the relationship between the amount of salt added to the brine solution and the freezing point of the solution.

       The kinds of evidence we need in order to support our claim include…

3.     Students should brainstorm to form a plan they would have to follow in order to answer the question, which might include researching background information. Work with students to

 

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develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

       Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

       The variable we will test is….

       The variables we will control are….

       The steps we will follow are….

       We will record and organize our data using….

       To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

4.     To explore how the cleanliness of water affects the properties of ice, students might mix salt, sand, or sugar in different cups of distilled water and freeze those cups along with a cup of pure distilled water. Students might then compare the properties of the different cups of ice using their hands or tools such as a magnifying lens or a vice grip. Encourage students to draw their ideas about what the molecules look like.

5.     To explore how the temperature of ice affects its hardness, students might obtain ice cubes taken from freezers set at different temperatures and perform tests to compare the cubes’ hardness. For example, students might perform scratch tests similar to the scratch tests used to identify minerals.

 

Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 14–15)

The following exemplifies how students might investigate the question of how the amount of salt added to a brine solution changes the freezing point of the solution. Help students discover that when a substance melts, the temperature of the substance stays at the melting point until all of the substance is melted. Give students leeway in determining how they will explore their chosen question, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation.

1.     Ask students questions such as the following to spark their thinking:

       What kinds of evidence will be appropriate for supporting your claim(s)?

       What is brine?

       How can you make different brine solutions?

       How can you measure the melting point of a substance?

       How is the melting point of a substance related to its freezing point?

       Is it easier to measure the melting point or the freezing point of a substance? Why? [Note: In a classroom, it is easier to measure the temperature at which ice (or an ice/salt mixture) melts rather than the temperature at which water (or brine) freezes. But because the melting point and the freezing point are equal, students actually measure both at the same time.)

       What is the freezing point of fresh water?

2.     Students should place equal masses of ice into at least three containers and then add different amounts of salt (or rock salt) to all but one container. The container without salt will be the control. Students should then mix the contents of the containers, and the ice should begin to melt. Students should measure and record the temperature of each container at 1–2 minute intervals until the temperature remains constant for at least 5 minutes. The constant temperature reached is the melting point of the ice or ice/salt

 

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mixture. Ensure that students brainstorm a list of variables that are involved in their proposed experiments and determine which can be controlled and which cannot. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

       The variable we will test is….

       The independent and dependent variables are….

       We will change amount of salt in our mixture by….

       We will measure the melting point of our mixture by….

       We will repeat our test _____ times to determine the relationship between the amount of salt added and the melting point of the mixture.

       To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

3.     After students have found the melting point for each container, they should compare the melting points of the ice/salt mixtures to the melting point of ice. As students carry out their investigations, have them connect what they learned about freezing point depression with the process described in the video by which ice is made. Use prompts such as:

       We know that cold brine can freeze fresh water because….

       We know that brine can control the temperature of ice in a rink because….

4.     Make sure students understand the importance of making accurate measurements as well as repeating trials to ensure that their data are reliable by using these, or similar prompts:

       We will measure the temperature of the containers by….

       We will repeat the procedure at least _____ times because….

       To find an average value for the melting point of each mixture, we will….

5.     Students might continue their investigations by experimenting to find out if they can use an ice/salt mixture to freeze fresh water. To do this, students can put water in a small self-sealing freezer bag and put that bag inside a larger self-sealing bag that contains ice and salt. Some students may want to try the reverse process: mixing solutions of water and salt and finding the temperature at which they freeze. Students will need access to a freezer to do this.

 

Adapt for High School Students

For high school students an alternative inquiry might be to calculate the expected value of a mixture’s freezing point depression and compare it to its actual freezing point depression. The equation for freezing point depression is: 

In this equation, Kf is the molal freezing-point constant, which is –1.86°C/m for water, and m is the molality of the sodium chloride ions. Students will have to calculate the molality using the masses of salt and ice in their containers. They might research the van ‘t Hoff factor, i, for NaCl, which is approximately 2. Lead a discussion about why the calculated and actual values of the freezing point depression are not the same, as well as why a salt is a better choice for depressing the freezing point than a molecular compound. Also discuss how the activity is related to making ice in an ice rink. Some ideas you might discuss are:

       How other types of mixtures (brines) produce different temperature changes.

       Adding more salt to a brine solution lowers the freezing point of the solution even more.

       Lowering the freezing point of a brine solution allows the solution to be chilled to lower temperatures.

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       Knowing the freezing point depression of a brine solution allows rink managers to control the temperature of the ice.

Even with the high school students there is a need to check for understanding at the conceptual level. Asking students to represent their understandings at the molecular level through drawings is a great way to do this.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations as evidence to support their claims. As needed, suggest ways they might organize their data using tables or graphs. Students should analyze their data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence their data shows. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because….

 

An example claim relating freezing point depression to the amount of salt added to a mixture might be:

As evidenced byrepeated trials using different amounts of salt, I claim that the freezing point (or melting point) of water depends on the amount of salt in the mixture because the freezing points (melting points) of my mixtures were lower when more salt was added

 

Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, the information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as the following:

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My ideas are similar to my classmates’ in that the data from groups that researched the same question had similar results—the mixtures that had more salt in them had lower melting points.

 

Reflect on Learning

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

       I claim my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence…

       My ideas changed in the following ways…

       I wish I had been able to spend more time on….

       Another investigation I would like to try is….

       Something that surprised me the most was…

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       A challenge that I (we) had to overcome was…

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 19.

 

 

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 16.

 

Explore Understanding

Guide a discussion to find out what students know about ice and ice rinks. Use the following or similar prompts to start students talking. You might use the KWL format so that students can articulate what they Know and what they Want to know.

       Water turns into ice when….

       Ice melts when….

       Ice that is good to skate on has properties such as….

       Skating on an ice rink is different from skating on a pond because….

       Sports that happen on ice include….

 

Show The Science of Ice and encourage students to take notes while they watch. Continue the discussion of ice and ice rinks using the following or similar prompts:

       When I watched the video, I thought about….

       The experts in the video explained that….

       Ice in ice rinks is made by….

       The ice in ice rinks is good for competitive sports because….

       Some properties of the ice in ice rinks that can change include….

       The brine solution that flows in pipes below an ice rink is colder than 0°C because….

       Ice properties that athletes like include….

       One type of ice might be better for _____ because….

 

Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions they have about how to make a model of an ice rink and vary the properties of ice. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering problem that is researchable and/or testable. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Some examples are:

       What is the best way to make ice with a certain set of properties?

       What is the best way to smooth ice after it has been skated on?

       What is the quickest way to repair holes (pits and scratches) in ice during competitions?

       How does the Zamboni work on the ice?

 

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Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials you have available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigations. In this inquiry, students might build mini ice rinks using petri dishes or small metal pet dishes or pet food cans filled with water and set on top of a block of dry ice or brine as discussed in the video. Alternatively, students might freeze their mini rinks by placing them on top of self-sealing bags containing mixtures of ice and additives of their choice. Some additives that students might want to mix with ice or in the water inside their rink include table salt, rock salt, table sugar, flour, or baking soda. (Canning or pickling salt, water-softening salt, and pool salt all are pure NaCl and might be less expensive to buy in bulk.) Students might use tools such craft sticks or index cards to smooth their ice as it freezes. Once the ice in the mini rinks is frozen, students might use butter knives or screwdrivers to scratch the ice. Students may also need tools such as clamps to test the strength of their ice and infrared thermometers to measure the temperature of their ice. Make sure students understand and know how to use the various tools safely prior to the activity.

 

Safety Considerations To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 16)

1.     Groups might come together to agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might explore different problems, such as finding the best way to make ice with certain properties, finding the best way to smooth ice, or finding the quickest way to repair a hole or pit in ice. Encourage research on how to measure smoothness or other background they might need. Give students free rein in determining how they will engineer their solutions, but insist that they get approval before building and testing. To help students envision their investigations, such as one pertaining to finding the best way to smooth ice after it has been skated on, use prompts such as the following:

       The problem we are solving is….

       The materials we could use are….

       The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

       We will need to know how to… as a way to determine the efficacy of our project.

       We are designing a solution that will….

       Acceptable evidence for our solution would include.…

2.     Lead whole-class or small-group discussions to establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions will be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials and time.

       We think we can solve the problem by....

       Our criteria for success are... and we will determine them by….

       Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

3.     Students should brainstorm to form a plan they would have to follow in order to solve the

 

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problem, which might include researching background information. Work with students to develop safe procedures that enable them to collect data. For example, to find the best way to smooth ice, students might build a mini ice rink, scratch the surface of the ice with a butter knife, and then try different ways of applying water to fill in the scratches. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

       Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

       We will construct our model ice rink by….

       The differences between the model rink and an actual rink include considering….

       We will test our process by….

       We will record and organize our data using….

       To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

4.     After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions.

 

Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 17–18)

The following exemplifies one way students might establish a set of criteria and constraints for a model ice rink and then find a solution to the problem What is the best way to make ice with a certain set of properties? Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will build their model ice rinks, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation.

1.     Allow time for groups to examine all of the materials available to them. Guide class or small-group discussions to identify the problem they are solving and then to identify criteria and constraints within which their solution will be developed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials and time. Use prompts such as the following:

       The problem we are solving is….

       The materials we could use are….

       We are designing a solution that will….

       The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

       We think we can solve the problem by....

       Our criteria for success are....

       Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

       Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include….

2.     Encourage students to think about what properties of ice (i.e., criteria) would be important to athletes who perform on ice. Also have them consider how they will make their model ice rinks. Use prompts such as the following in your discussion.

       Properties of ice in an ice rink can vary by….

       Softer ice would be important if an athlete….

       Thicker ice would be important if an athlete….

       We can model an ice rink using _____ because….

       We are not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

       The properties of the ice might change over time because….

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3.     If students intend to use bags of brine or ice/salt mixtures to freeze the ice in their rinks, ensure students understand the concept of freezing point depression. Review what freezing point depression is, and explain how the concentration of salt (or other dissolved substances) affects the freezing point of water.

4.     Students may need to be introduced to infrared thermometers before beginning their investigations. Explain that infrared thermometers measure the surface temperature of an object by measuring the infrared radiation given off by the object. Infrared thermometers are better than regular thermometers for measuring the temperature of ice in the model rinks because the infrared thermometers do not touch the ice and therefore do not warm it up. Furthermore, the bulb of a regular thermometer would have to be encased in the ice to get an accurate reading.

5.     To make model ice rinks, students can place petri dishes on a block of dry ice or on a bag filled with an ice/salt mixture. Water placed in the petri dishes would then freeze. To make ice with different properties, students could add different amounts of water into the petri dishes, mix additives in the water that they put into their rinks, or change the composition of the ice/salt mixture. Students could then test their ice to see if it meets their predetermined criteria by scratching the ice with butter knives, attempting to chip the ice with butter knives, testing the ice strength by squeezing with a clamp, and/or measuring the temperature of the ice with an infrared thermometer. Help students visualize this procedure using these or similar prompts:

       In our model ice rink, the water will freeze because….

       We will test the hardness of our ice by….

       We will measure the temperature of our ice by….

       We will test the properties of ice in several model ice rinks because….

6.     After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bymy measurements, I claim that softer ice can be made by keeping the temperature of the ice around –5°C because the ice I made at that temperature was easier to scratch and chip, perhaps because the bonds were not quite as tightly formed.

 

Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, the information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their

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original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

       My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

       My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

       My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were similar to those discussed in the video because the ice in my rink was easy to scratch with a butter knife, which is similar to an ice skate’s blade. The video stated that figure skaters liked soft ice and that the ice they skated on was about –5°C.

 

Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

       My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

       My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

       When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

       One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

       What I understand about my problem is….

       I can begin to explain my results by…..

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 19.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copy Master: Open Choice SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Science of Ice

Use this guide to investigate a question about the structure or formation of ice. Write your report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

My class discussion and the video encouraged me to think about these questions….

 

Design Investigations

Choose one question. Brainstorm with your teammates to come up with ways in which you might be able to answer the question. Look up information as needed. Add safety precautions. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.

       The variable we will test is….

       The variables we will control are….

       The steps we will follow are….

       We will record and organize our data using….

       To conduct the investigation safely, we will….

       Our question matters because…..

 

Record Data and Observations

Record your observations. Organize your data in tables or graphs as appropriate.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about your results. How do they fit with what you already knew? How do they change what you thought you knew about the topic?

       My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence….

       My ideas changed in the following ways….

       One idea/concept I am still working to understand involves….

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COPY MASTER: Focused SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Science of Ice

Use this guide to investigate a question about the freezing point depression of water. Write your report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

How does the amount of salt added to ice change the melting point or other physical properties of the ice?

 

Design Investigations

Brainstorm with your teammates to come up with ways in which you might be able to answer the question. Decide on one idea and write a procedure that will allow you to safely explore the question. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.

       The variable we will test is….

       The independent and dependent variables will be….

       The variables we will control, or keep the same, are….

       We will change the amount of salt in our mixture by….

       We will measure the melting point of our mixture by….

       We will repeat our test _____ times to determine the relationship between the amount of salt added and the melting point of the mixture.

       To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

       Our investigation matters/is important because…..

 

Record Data and Observations

Organize your observations and data in tables or graphs as appropriate. Below is an example of a table that could be used to collect temperature data over time.

 

Temperature of Ice/Salt Mixtures

 

Time (minutes)

Ice Only
Temperature (°C)

Ice + Salt 1
Temperature (°C)

Ice + Salt 2
Temperature (°C)

0:00

 

 

 

2:00

 

 

 

4:00

 

 

 

6:00

 

 

 

8:00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(14)

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

       How does the melting point of ice only compare with the melting points of the mixtures?

       How do the melting points of the mixtures compare with each other?

       How can you make a graph of your results?

       Why do different materials have different melting points? Draw a picture to explain your thinking.

 

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

       My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it change what you thought you knew?

       I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence….

       My ideas changed in the following ways….

       One concept I still do not understand involves….

       One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

       Something that surprised me the most was…

       A challenge that I (we) had to overcome was…

 

 

 

 

 

(15)


 

Copy Master: Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Science of Ice

Use this as a guide to make a model ice rink that you will use to solve an engineering problem. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

Our class discussion and the video make me think about problems such as….

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will make and test your ice rink. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

       The materials we will use include….

       The steps we will follow are….

       Acceptable evidence for our solution would include….

       We will record and organize our data using….

       To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

       To determine the success of our product we will need to know how to…..

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

       My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

       My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

       My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

       I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

       My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

       When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

       One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

 

 

(16)

COPY MASTER: Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Science of Ice

Use this guide establish a set of criteria and constraints for a model ice rink and then find the best way to make ice that fits your criteria. Record your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

What is the best way to make ice with a certain set of properties?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group what properties you want the ice in your ice rink to have. Then discuss how you will build your model ice rink. Use these prompts to help you.

       The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

       We think we can solve the problem by....

       Our criteria for success are....

       Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

       Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include…

       Properties of ice in an ice rink can vary by….

       Softer ice would be important if an athlete….

       Thicker ice would be important if an athlete….

       We can model an ice rink using _____ because….

       We are not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

       To be safe, we need to….

       Words and terms I need to operationally define include [softer, thicker, etc.]….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs such as the example below.

 

Ice Rink Construction

Hardness/Softness Test

Temperature (°C)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

       How did you compare the hardness or softness of the ice in your rinks? What do these terms mean?

       How does the temperature of your ice affect the hardness or softness of the ice?

       How did your rink construction affect the properties of your ice?

 

(17)

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and then make one or more claims based on the evidence you observed.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

       My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

       My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

       My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

       I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

       My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

       When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

       One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(18)

 

Copy Master: Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations

 

Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial question or problem

Question or problem had had a yes/no answer or too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Question or problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Question or problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial question or problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was not sufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Observations and data

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, not recorded, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial question or problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial question or problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

(19)

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