## SCIENCE OF GOLF: Newton's Third Law of Motion & Momentum (Grades 7-12)

##### Objective:

Students identify and solve problems related to Newton's Third Law and the game of golf by working through an engineering design process. Students build on what they know to synthesize science, technology, engineering design, and math concepts related to Newton's Third Law of Motion and momentum and apply their understanding to other curricular areas.

##### Introduction Notes:

Science OF GOLF: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the USGA and Chevron.

Background and Planning Information.............................................................. 2

Video Timeline ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

Language Support ....................................................................................................................................................... 2

Next Generation Science Standards......................................................................................................................... 20

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy.................................................................... 20

Promote STEM with Video................................................................................ 2

Connect to Science....................................................................................................................................................... 2

Connect to Technology................................................................................................................................................ 3

Connect to Engineering............................................................................................................................................... 4

Connect to Math.......................................................................................................................................................... 5

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................................................ 6

Identify Problems......................................................................................................................................................... 7

Investigate Design Problems....................................................................................................................................... 7

Materials and the Inquiry Process.............................................................................................................. 7

Open Choice Approach................................................................................................................................. 8

Focused Approach...................................................................................................................................... 10

Media Research Option.............................................................................................................................. 11

Related Resources....................................................................................................................................... 12

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence........................................................................................................................... 12

Present and Compare Findings................................................................................................................................ 12

Reflect and Redesign.................................................................................................................................................. 13

Inquiry Assessment................................................................................................................................................... 13

Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan......................................................... 13

Integrate Video in Instruction.................................................................................................................................. 13

Bellringer...................................................................................................................................................... 13

Compare and Contrast............................................................................................................................... 13

Using the 5E Approach............................................................................................................................... 14

Connect to Biomechanics.......................................................................................................................................... 14

Connect to Other Sports........................................................................................................................................... 14

Use Video as a Writing Prompt................................................................................................................................ 14

Copy Masters ................................................................................................. 15

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations........................................................................................................ 19

(1)

Jack Nicklaus once said about golf that "hitting a perfectly straight shot with a big club is a fluke." Science of Golf (SOG): Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum explains what happens when a golfer swings a golf club and applies a big force to the small golf ball. The video features amateur golfer and Stanford University student Patrick Rodgers who gives his opinion on the importance of knowing what causes power and speed in the golf swing. Jim Hubbell, research engineer at the United States Golf Association (USGA) discusses what forces are and how they work in pairs. Hubbell also defines momentum and how it is transferred to the ball.

0:00     0:15     Series opening

0:16     0:55     Send it on its way—Introducing Patrick Rodgers

0:56     1:15     The ball applies that same force—Newton’s Third Law

1:16     1:22     The Third Law defined

1:23     1:56     Force defined using a drive as an example

1:57     2:37     Impulse and the golf swing

2:38     2:50     Momentum defined

2:51     3:19     The Law of Conservation of Momentum

3:20     3:39     Momentum and velocity

3:40     4:02     A complete understanding of the science that is involved in golf….

4:03     4:18     Closing credits

Language Support:To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the right side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

Standards Connections for NGSS and Common Core ELA

Connected standards are listed in full on the last page of this document.

Science concepts described in this video center around Newton's Third Law of Motion, a classical mechanics concept discussed at all grade levels as well as on the golf course. Kindergarteners examine how the direction or speed of an object can be changed with pushes or pulls. Third graders look at the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of objects. Fifth graders study the force that keeps the golf ball on the tee, as depicted in the video. Middle school students plan investigations to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. High school students study many forms of motion. They examine the mathematical relationship between force and acceleration and conservation of momentum and use engineering ideas to evaluate collisions.

(2)

Related Science Concepts

acceleration

action

balanced

equal and opposite

equilibrium

force

friction

g

inertia

inverse

mass

mechanics

net force

opposite

pull

push

reaction

rest

speed

unbalanced

vector

Take Action with Students

Explain how symmetry can be used to help understand Newton's Third Law of Motion.

Sancho Panza is a character in the novel Don Quixote written by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in 1605. Isaac Newton was born in 1642 and began working on motion around 1665. Three hundred years later, in a Broadway musical based on Cervantes's novel, Sancho Panza proclaims, "Whether the stone hits the pitcher or the pitcher hits the stone, it's going to be bad for the pitcher." How can science explain Sancho's insight?

Examples of Newton's Third Law of Motion abound in everyday life. Create several diagrams that explain/identify equal but opposite action-reaction events in any sport.

Jack William Nicklaus (born January 21, 1940), nicknamed "The Golden Bear," is an American professional golfer. He is widely regarded as the most accomplished professional golfer of all time, winning a total of 18 career major championships, while producing 19 second place and 9 third place finishes, over a span of 25 years. "I have a money clip that's in my pocket right now and it's been in my pocket for 50 years," Nicklaus explained. "It says, 'Driving Distance Winner'—that's what it says across the PGA Championship [money clip]. That drive was 341 yards, 17 inches. I do remember that, too. That was an 11-degree wood driver, 42¾-inch shaft, Dynamic S shaft, and nobody had a preference on what golf ball was hit." Today, it’s almost unfathomable that no one cared what ball was hit. Now the ball is one of the most researched and advertised pieces of technology in the game. The ball is one half of a force pair in golf. In SOG: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum, the narrator says, “When they do interact, it’s easy to see that the force of the golf club affects the ball. What’s not so obvious is that the golf ball applies that same force toward the club.” Most technological innovations in golf have to do with the club and the ball.

Take Action with Students

Go to http://www.bridgestonegolf.com/product/balls/lady-precept. Read the marketing message and explain how what was proclaimed is related to Newton's Third Law of Motion and Momentum. In light of what you know about Newton's Third Law of Motion would you buy these golf balls? Why or why not? Students might be surprised to learn that many male golfers use this golf ball because it allows them to drive the golf ball further. Students might suggest alternative marketing messages that might eliminate gender issues.

(3)

A new club shaft has just been designed that claims to store useable or useful energy within the shaft that is released late in the swing to accelerate the club head. What can you cite from SOG: Newton's Third Law of Motion and Momentum, or what you've read about it, that supports or disproves this statement?

Can students create a full explanation of Newton's Third Law of Motion? Thinking something through clearly, and fully, and then putting it on paper is important to the technical writing skills engineers need to develop. Consider the following excerpt from a blog post. How does the post clarify Newton's Third Law of Motion? How does information from the post apply to the game of golf?

… When the club comes into contact with the ball, there are forces on both club and ball due to repulsion of the electron-clouds of the atoms of the outer contact surfaces. At the place of impact, there is a resultant force on the ball's atoms which accelerates them forwards. A longitudinal compression pulse (effectively a sound wave) then passes through the ball. This is due to a combination of the inertia of the atoms in the parts of the ball that haven't started moving, and resistance to compression of the ball due to repulsion of neighboring atoms pushed closer together than their equilibrium separations.

As the compression pulse passes through the ball the atoms are progressively accelerated forwards and eventually the whole ball is moving forwards. A 'model' for this would be a series of masses (M) separated by compressible springs (S): MSMSMSMSMS When you hit (apply a force to) the left mass, it starts to move right and compresses the 1st spring. The other masses don't start to move immediately due to their inertia. But eventually due to the momentum of the preceding mass and the compressions of the springs, all the masses are moving right and the whole system is moving right. … (retrieved from: https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120816105022AAOjm8j)

The engineering design process uses human ingenuity to draw from science, math, and technology to solve a problem. In this case, SOG: Newton's Third Law of Motion and Momentum examines the science and math behind the law and its implications for golf. Newton's Third Law Of Motion helps engineers and golfer to quantify the forces acting on the golf ball and the golf club. Patrick Rodgers also explains that, "It really helps to understand how the golf ball and the golf club actually interact and what creates power and speed. It is the interface/interaction between the golfer's body and the golf club that delivers speed and power to the golf ball.” Engineering and biomechanics are certainly involved in both aspects.

Take Action with Students

Golf club and golf ball designs are constantly being updated, revised, or completely rethought. Do some research to determine some common threads of these efforts. Generate a list of the top five things that seem to be the focus of engineering efforts to improve golf equipment. Glancing through the pronouncements in a single golf magazine should provide enough data to complete this task. Then explain which of the areas you identified above relate to Newton's Third Law of Motion and how they do so.

(4)

Entrepreneurs are involved in many engineering innovations. Watch the video at http://www.swing-speed.com/index.php. What claim is made about the Somax Power Hip Trainer? The web site lists 16 different sports. How can understanding Newton's Third Law of Motion help to explain how the Somax Power Hip Trainer supposedly meets the claims made about it? On the basis of the video; draw a diagram to explain the force pairs when the hip trainer is positioned at each of its three settings. Compare the Somax Power Hip Trainer with what you learn at http://golf.about.com/od/fitnesshealth/a/lunge_twist.htm.

Math abounds in SOG: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum. Math can determine the measure of any force in newtons. Given a force in newtons and how long the force is applied, impulse can be learned. Jim Hubbell told us about the math problem, “Momentum is really defined as the mass of an object times its velocity. p = m v.

Patrick Rodgers, at the end of the video, says, “There’s so much science that is entailed in the game and I think to have a complete understanding of the science that is involved in golf not only can help you understand science, but it can better yourself as a golfer.” Changing "science" to "math" in the quotation would not make it any less true.

Take Action with Students

Find the force in newtons. F = ma

1.     A 15 kg medicine ball is accelerated at 3 m/s2.

2.     Jayden is thrilled with his brand new, shiny, SLDR driver. He couldn’t believe it when he dropped it onto the concrete as he removed it from the trunk of the car. With what force did his 330-gram driver hit the concrete?

Momentum = mass x velocity. Momentum units are kg m/s. The formula is p = mv.

1.     A putted golf ball is rolling North at 5 m/s. A golf ball has a mass of .046 kg. What is the momentum of the rolling ball?

2.     Which has more momentum: a parked Smart™ car or a rolling golf ball?

3.     The brakes of a golf cart loaded with the bags of two golfers walking to the nearby putting green fail. It rolls down the 5° slope toward where you are fixing a leaky sprinkler head. The golf cart is picking up speed. Should you step out in front of it and attempt to stop it? If your answer is yes, predict how quickly you could stop it. If your answer is no, explain what you do differently and why you would do it.

4.     Calculate the momentum of a 300 kg golf cart rolling down a hill at 6 m/s.

Impulse = change in momentum. Impulse = F x ∆t; impulse = pf - pi

1.     A 100 N force is applied to a golf ball for .0005 s. What is the impulse acting on the ball?

2.     A golf ball with a mass of 0.046 kg is moving at 30 m/s. The golf ball collides with a tree for 0.01 s and rebounds at 30 m/s in the opposite direction. What force did the tree exert on the golf ball?

3.     You and your buddy do battle with guns powered by compressed air that fire ping-pong balls. Both guns are the same except one has a barrel that is twice as long as the other. Which weapon would you select? Why?

(5)

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 16.

Guide a discussion to find out what students know about Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum. Use resources such as the following:

After breaking the ice on the topic you might move groups of students to the four corners of the room. In each corner, groups will discuss Newton’s Third Law of Motion, Momentum, or Impulse (or an aspect of engineering that you’ve assigned to each corner) to activate their background knowledge. Four corners can be highly engaging for students and only requires 5 to 10 minutes. Use the following or similar prompts to start students talking.

One experience I have had with impulse is….

Golfers are able to change impulse by....

I experience impulse every day when….

Given the formulas I’ve examined in SOG: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum, a variable I can change and control is….

Things that affect impulse and what is does include….

Sometimes, impulse makes something more difficult, such as when….

Sometimes, momentum is necessary, such as when....

The problem with impulse in golf is....

The engineer/scientist can help golfers by....

I’ve seen _____ related to momentum and impulse....

Some factors controlling....

Show SOG: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum and encourage students to take notes about force, momentum, impulse, and all expert recommendations. Continue the discussion of how a design team might improve the way in which impulse between the golf club and ball can be improved using the following or similar prompts:

When I watched the video, I thought about….

The video describes....

We learned from the video that….

Something about what was done in the video that I connected to an event in my life was….

One problem that a design team might try to solve is….

The experts in the video explained that….

Variables influencing the potential solutions include….

(6)

Constraints inherent in the game of golf include….

Our efforts might be limited by.…

Engineering has improved… by….

Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions they have about improving controllable variables so the golf ball can be hit a greater distance. The rules of golf may or may not be followed strictly to meet the needs of this activity. Groups should be encouraged to develop questions that will push their understanding of Newton’s third law and momentum and may require print or online resources to supplement/deepen what they already know. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering problem that is researchable and/or testable. Bring groups together to discuss/share problems. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Some questions that reflect engineering design problems are:

What factors can be changed that might improve the time period over which the force of the golf club is applied?

How do the rules of golf limit changes that can be made to the clubface of a golf club or the golf ball?

Would increasing/reducing the duration of the time the golf club is in contact with the golf ball improve performance?

Is there an optimal way to improve impulse in the game of golf?

What exercises would strengthen the golfer’s performance in this area without requiring redesign of equipment?

How could we use innovative designs/materials to improve performance?

What is the ideal speed for a golf ball to travel through the air?

Could the ball just be hit harder to get it to go further?

Which has a greater effect, improving the impulse between the golf club and the golf ball or improving the athlete’s performance?

How can we predict how our design change/improvements will work on the golf course?

How might the current golf ball design be used to optimize ball speed and distance traveled?

What is the most effective way to make a minimal design change that will make a golf ball fly the greatest distance?

What material(s) should we use to optimally implement our design?

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Materials and the Inquiry Process: Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation.

(7)

To explore Newton’s Third Law of Motion, Momentum and how to hit a golf ball further: Students might use actual golf clubs and golf balls. The mass of a golf club could be changed using lead tape or by gluing metal washers or other weights to the back of a golf club. Students might use glue, wood strips, plastic, rubber, different types of metal or other materials in order to lengthen or shorten the time that the force of the golf club is applied to the golf ball. Students might also use materials similar to those already mentioned to make a model to test these concepts. If students examine how strengthening a golfer’s core through exercises is a good plan for hitting the golf ball further they would need access to or information about appropriate exercise equipment.

Measuring tools such as meter sticks, stopwatches, magnifying lenses, electronic balances, spring scales, smart phones, video cameras, graduated cylinders, protractors, rulers or measuring tape and calculators might also be useful in the design process. If students decide to examine if they can hit the ball harder to drive it consistently further they will need to determine their swing speed. For each mile per hour of club speed, a golf ball travels about 2.3 yards, according to John Darling, Professional Golfers' Association (PGA) member instructor at Maderas Golf Club in California. Dividing the average distance the ball is hit by 2.3 results in an approximate club head speed in miles per hour. (http://golftips.golfsmith.com/golf-club-swing-speed-20431.html)

Safety Considerations: You and students should wear cover goggles as needed. Review safe use of tools and measurement devices as needed. Augment your own safety procedures with NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

1.     Have students watch SOG: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum from 1:57–2:37 to help them begin to think of the variables they might manipulate in their investigations. Give students time to discuss their various questions. Groups might agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might evaluate different problems and solutions. The rules of golf allow for a range of swing weights for golf clubs. There are six ranges: A–F. There are 10 values in each of the ranges.  If a D2 6-iron is compared with a D3 6-iron the D3 club would be about one penny (.07 oz.) heavier. One activity idea might be to manipulate the mass of a golf club to see if the golf ball goes further if struck with a lighter/heavier golf club.

Popular golfer Rickie Fowler proclaims, “I’ve spent more time fixing my swing at the gym than on the range, I’m confident the results will be lasting.” (see: http://www.golfdigest.com/golf-instruction/2013-05/photos-rickie-fowler-fix-swing#intro) Another activity might be to explore how physical exercises would help a golfer to hit the ball further by delivering a more forceful blow to the back of the golf ball.

To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

The design problem we are solving is….

In order for an exercise program to have an impact of the distance a golf ball is hit we will follow it for the time period of….

Materials we could use to implement our design are….

(8)

We are designing a solution that will….

Barriers to success that we anticipate are….

Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

2.     Lead discussionsto establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions might be designed. The rules of golf in relationship to Newton’s Third Law of Motion should be considered here. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money.

We think we can solve the problem by....

Our criteria for success are… and we will determine them by....

Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

3.     Have students determine the dependent variable they will use to evaluate their design. Check the students' understanding of each variable. Have students determine other variables associated with the problem they are trying to solve and consider how they will measure or control all of the variables. Then have them determine what data/evidence they need to collect to evaluate the success of their design. Students need to confirm that their designs address the science concepts behind the investigation.

4.     Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Students must have your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is....

We will increase the strength of our golfer to....

We will conduct a baseline test to….

We will make design decisions, or changes to the independent variable, such as instituting a rigorous core exercise program to observe what happens to the length the golf ball is hit.

The data we will collect are….

We will record and organize our data using….

We will measure our success by….

5.     Allow students to spend some time working with the materials they have decided to use to implement their design. As students work with the materials, suggest that they reexamine their problem(s) and write down the procedures they intend to follow and how they will test their design and collect the data necessary to revise their design. Collecting evidence to promote future iterations and innovations is a critical step in the engineering design cycle. Guide students with prompts such as the following.

Information we need to understand before designing an exercise program includes….

We will implement our exercise routine by….

While undertaking an exercise program we will….

We will determine the number of golfers that need to participate in the exercise program by….

As we repeat our trials of exercise we will increase/decrease the time spent exercising to….

To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

(9)

We will represent our data by….

Mathematical models we can use in our investigation include….

6.     Be sure to work with students to develop safe procedures that keep the variables not being tested as constant as possible, allowing them to make accurate measurements.

7.     After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution, as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to optimize their solutions considering what they have learned. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

The following exemplifies one way students might design solutions to SOG: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum problems. Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will build and test their designs, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. You might include constraints for issues of safety, time, or materials.

1.     Give students time to discuss their selected problem(s) and their plans to solve the problem. Allow time for groups to examine available materials. Guide whole-class or small-group discussions to identify the problem being solved and then to identify criteria and constraints against which solutions will be developed. For example, students might make changes to the face of a golf club to extend the time it exerts a force to the golf ball. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money. Use prompts such as the following:

The design problem we are solving is….

We are designing a solution that will….

Materials we could use to implement our design are….

The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

We think we can solve the problem by....

Our criteria for success are....

Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

Making a model will help to....

Acceptable evidence that would support claims of the success of our design includes….

2.     Encourage students to think about how they can design and construct the face of a golf club with a longer impulse while considering variables such as mass of the head of the golf club, flexibility of the face of the golf club, and moment of inertia of the golf club itself. Guide the class to establish criteria and constraints for the solution to the problem. Use prompts such as the following:

The problem we are solving is....

Factors influencing the … of … a include….

We can build a model of a … using….

Constraints we must deal with include….

(10)

The golfer that swings our golf club will have to....

One thing we will need to do with the ... is....

We’re not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

Another thing we will need to do with the ... is....

We think ourchanges will increase the of the ... because....

The face of the golf club we have designed is similar to an actual … because….

Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are….

3.     Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection strategy prior to designing the face of their golf club. Provide students with the following prompts to guide how they will collect evidence for evaluating their design:

We will test our design by….

We will change the design of our club face in the following ways to see the relationship to the dependent variable….

The data (dependent variable) we will collect are….

We will record and organize our data using….

We will use evidence such as _____ to determine the need for additional changes such as….

Our design can be justified by….

4.     Students plan and build their design from the materials at hand. Students might design and build the face of a golf club with long impulse from a 6-iron, glue, layers of high-impact synthetic rubber and plastic, or a combination of other materials. Encourage multiple trials.The swing of the club by the golfer and the golf ball itself should remain constant.

5.     After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy –

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources. Students might begin by researching why they are doing this media investigation. They might compare why some of the designs they learn about are perceived as better than others. Students should brainstorm to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet search engines that might result in resources that will help them answer the question. Review how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and how to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

(11)

Words and phrases associated with our question are….

The reliability of our sources was established by….

The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….

Our research might feed into an engineering design solution such as….

To conduct the investigation safely using the Internet, we will….

Newton's Third Law of Motion: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/newton3.html; http://www.physics4kids.com/files/motion_laws.html; http://www.imcpl.org/kids/blog/?p=8876; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MUgFT1hRTE4

Conservation of Momentum: http://www.challenger.org/blog/2012/06/29/conservation-of-momentum/; http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/momentum/u4l2b.cfm; http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/physics/momentum-and-impulse/revise-it/principle-of-the-conservation-of-momentum

Golf and Newton's Third Law of Motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIrX6hL-x4c; http://www.golfswing.com.au/92

As students carry out their design investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements in accepted units. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

Example claims might be:

As evidenced bythe statistically significant increase in driver distance of three of the four golfers that participated in our core strengthening regime, we claim strengthening golfers can allow them to hit the golf ball farther.

I claim our club design was not successful becauseour attempt to extend the impulse period of our golf club did not result in any increase in distance.

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

(12)

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were similar to those discussed in the video in that we were able to design and build a club face that extended the period of impulse by .0001 second. This resulted in a 17 m/s increase in the speed of the golf ball, which caused the ball to fly an average of 22 m farther.

Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs while recognizing that there are multiple ways to solve any problem. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

My ideas changed in the following ways….

It is important to….

One concept I now understand (or understand better) or could teach someone….

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 19.

Integrate Video in Instruction

Bellringer:Show SOG: Newton’s Third Law Of Motion and Momentum, focusing on the segment from 0:56–1:22. Then choose one or more of these prompts.

For every force, there is an equal and opposite force. When speeding down the highway on your motorcycle a large bug crashes into your right cheek. Explain what Newton’s Third Law would make of the collision between your face mask and the bug.

The Tour de France is an amazing sporting event. How would Newton have designed racing bikes to help the peddler apply the optimal amount of force to the pedals?

On the basis of what you know about Newton's Third Law of Motion, how is it possible for a rocket to move in space when there is nothing but void to push back on it?

Why is a mountain climber using a rope to aid in the ascent a good example of Newton's Third Law of Motion?

Compare and Contrast:Have students watch SOG: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum 1:16–1:22 and SOG: Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion 1:04–3:07, then compare and contrast Newton’s Three Laws of Motion.

(13)

If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:

Explore: Use the Design Investigations section of the Facilitate Inquiry to support your lessons on forces and motion. Main concepts should include force pairs, momentum, and impulse.

Elaborate: Show students SOG: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum, focusing on the section from 1:57–2:37 that discusses the change in momentum of a golf ball that has been struck by a golf club. Have students examine the relationships among force, time, and mass. Students should elaborate on what happens if each of the variables is changed.

Rewatch SOG: Newton's Third Law of Motion and Momentum from 0:56–1:15. Biomechanics is the study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms. Suppose you're a rehabilitation therapist. You put an ankle weight on a patient's right leg. The weight creates an increase in the force of the mass and the downward pull of gravity—the opposite but equal reaction. When the patient lifts her leg, the muscles that lift her leg have to work harder. Her weakened/damaged quadriceps might be strengthened. Do some research into the large opposing muscle groups. Think about actions that have to be performed when playing golf (or another sport that you are more familiar with). It may be something as simple as putting the ball on the tee or reaching down to lift the ball out of the cup. Pick some motions to explore and create a diagram that identifies the opposing muscle groups.

Connect to … Other Sports

Show SOG: Newton's Third Law of Motion and Momentum 0:56–1:15. For homework ask students to jot down a note every time a pair of forces act on them for 30 minutes this evening. Then have them write to explain if the forces helped or hindered them and what might have been the result if the forces had not been there.

(14)

Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum

Use this as a guide to design and test your solution according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

Identify Problems

Our class discussion and the video make me think about problems such as….

The materials/exercise activities we will use include….

Our criteria for success are….

Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

The constraints within which we will work are….

We will record and organize our data using….

To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 My Evidence My Claim My Reason

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

Reflect and Redesign

I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

In redesigning, innovations we incorporated included….

An idea that I understand better or could teach other students is....

(15)

Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum

Use this as a guide to plan, build, and test your design according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

Why are force pairs, momentum, and impulse important considerations in the design of golf clubs?

Identify Problems

How can we make changes to the face of a golf club so that it will hit the ball farther?

How can we make a change to the face of a golf club so that it will hit the ball farther without sacrificing accuracy?

What factors should we consider changing?

How can we be certain that our design will be an accurate test of the science concepts we are examining?

The science concepts that we will need to use when planning our design include….

We think we can solve our problem by....

Our criteria for success are....

Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include…

Our design will look like....

We think these changes willincrease the distance a golf ball can be hit because....

We will represent our data in the following way(s)….

We will compare the data from each trial by….

We will analyze the overall data by….

To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

Record and organize your observations and data in tables such as the one below. In the “Design Changes/Trial #” column describe the changes you made to your golf club that were intended to increase the distance it might hit a golf ball. Make sketches of the changes you make to your design and explain why you incorporated each change.

(16)

 Design Iteration Describe Changes/Trial # Distance (m) 1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 10 Average 2 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 10

Ideas for Analyzing Data

Describe how the changes you made to the face of your golf club impacted the distance you hit the golf ball.

Describe how your data helped you make decisions to change your design.

What design changes caused the greatest impact in observed results?

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 My Evidence My Claim My Reason

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

(17)

Reflect and Redesign

I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

One thing I understand or could teach others….

(18)

 Criteria 1 point 2 points 3 points Initial problem Problem had too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable. Problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation. Problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation. Investigation design The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem. While the design supported the initial problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was insufficient. Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem. Variables (if applicable) Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified. While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present. Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared. Safety procedures Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified. Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed. Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to. Data and Analysis (based on iterations) Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation. Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately. Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately. Claim No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it. Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation. Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence. Findings comparison Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial problem. Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected. Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity. Reflection Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used. Student reflections were not related to the initial problem. Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

(19)

Science OF GOLF: Newton’s Third Law of Motion and Momentum

Standards Connections

Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

MS.Forces and Interacions

MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects. MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

HS.Forces and Interactions

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. HS-PS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is

conserved when there is no net force on the system.

Engineering

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

HS-ETS1-1.Analyze a major global challengeto specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

(20)

Close

FILTERING

If you are trying to view the videos from inside a school or university, your IT admin may need to enable streaming on your network. Please see the Internet Filtering section of our Technical Requirements page.

DVDs AND OTHER COPIES

Videos on this page are not available on DVD at this time due to licensing restrictions on the footage.

Still have questions?

Close

INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

The Science of the Olympic Winter Games videos are only available to visitors inside the United States due to licensing restrictions on the Olympics footage used in the videos.

FILTERING

If you are trying to view the videos from inside a school or university, your IT admin may need to enable streaming on your network. Please see the Internet Filtering section of our Technical Requirements page.

DVDs AND OTHER COPIES

The Science of the Olympic Winter Games is not available on DVD at this time due to licensing restrictions on on Olympic footage.

Still have questions?

Close