SCIENCE OF GOLF: Meteorology & Weather - STEM Lesson Plan (Grades 4-12) Print

Objective:

Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere. Meteorology has been practiced since ancient times but has only made progress in the accuracy of meteorologist’s predictions since the 18th century. The increase in computing power late last century made breakthroughs in weather forecasting possible. Meteorologists predict the observable events of weather. Different weather conditions can have a major impact on the outcome of a game of golf. Meteorology is also key to keeping both the players and spectators safe during the four days of a tournament. Technology plays a large role in these predictions that keeps everyone safe on the turfgrass. Technology, available on most smart phones (as shown in the video), allows golfers to serve as their own meteorologists as they play a round of golf.


Introduction Notes:

Science OF GOLF:Meteorology & Weather

STEM Lesson Plan / Adaptable for Grades 4–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the USGA and Chevron.

 

Background and Planning Information............................................................ 2

About the Video........................................................................................................................... 2

Video Timeline ............................................................................................................................ 2

Language Support ....................................................................................................................... 2

Next Generation Science Standards.......................................................................................... 21

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy........................................ 21

 

Promote STEM with Video............................................................................. 3

Connect to Science...................................................................................................................... 3

Connect to Technology................................................................................................................ 4

Connect to Engineering............................................................................................................... 4

Connect to Math.......................................................................................................................... 5

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry........................................................ 6

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................ 6

Identify Problems......................................................................................................................... 7

Investigate Design Problems....................................................................................................... 7

            Materials and the Inquiry Process................................................................................... 7

            Open Choice Approach.................................................................................................... 8

            Focused Approach............................................................................................................ 9

            Media Research Option................................................................................................. 12

            Related Resources......................................................................................................... 12

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence........................................................................................... 12

Present and Compare Findings.................................................................................................. 13

Reflect and Redesign................................................................................................................. 13

Inquiry Assessment.................................................................................................................... 13

 

Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan...................................................... 13

Integrate Video in Instruction.................................................................................................... 13

Bellringer....................................................................................................................... 13

            Using the 5E Approach.................................................................................................. 14

Connect to English/Language Arts............................................................................................ 14

Connect to Math........................................................................................................................ 14

Use Video as a Writing Prompt................................................................................................. 14

 

Copy Masters .............................................................................................. 16

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students.............................................. 16

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students...................................................... 17

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations............................................................................ 20

 

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About the Video

Science of Golf (SOG): Meteorology & Weather explains why most golf bags come with a special contraption to deal with the weather. It's called the umbrella holder. The average round of golf is supposed to last four hours. During that time the golfer is at the mercy of the elements. Tee times (scheduling a starting time with the golf course) are normally made a week in advance. Predicting the weather that far out is pretty iffy. Predicting what the weather will do over the four hours you are at the golf course can be even tougher. The rules of golf only stop play for inclement weather if there is lightning in the immediate area or if continuation of play would damage the course. That’s why those lovely golf shoes are guaranteed to be waterproof. What about the wind? Have you ever noticed how many golfers toss pieces of grass into the breeze? Besides discussing how wind, humidity, and temperature can all impact the next golf shot, the video also examines how weather prediction is crucial for planning and safety at every golf tournament.

 

 Video Timeline

0:00     0:15     Series opening

0:16     0:40     Introduction to Patrick Rodgers – Then it’s up to the elements

0:41     1:02     Muddy play at 2013 U. S. Open at Merion

1:03     1:18     Introduction to Paul Goodloe, a meteorologist and avid golfer

1:19     1:41     Using scientific models to predict the weather

1:42     2:21     The conditions needed for thunderstorms

2:22     2:31     Thunders storms and tournament play

2:32     2:55     Less dangerous storms have high winds which change how golf is played

2:56     3:17     Rain brings in several variables

3:18     3:26     Temperature and humidity are also factors

3:27     3:49     Impact of elevation on air density

3:50     4:08     Weather forecasts are more accurate but weather is still unpredictable

4:09     4:20     Experience is required to play golf in weather

4:21     4:36     Summary

4:37     4:52     Closing credits

 

 Language Support: To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the right side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Standards Connections for NGSS and Common Core ELA

Connected standards are listed in full on the final pages of this document.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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 Connect to Science

Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere. Meteorology has been practiced since

ancient times but has only made progress in the accuracy of meteorologist’s predictions since the 18th century. The increase in computing power late last century made breakthroughs in weather forecasting possible. Meteorologists predict the observable events of weather. Different weather conditions can have a major impact on the outcome of a game of golf. Meteorology is also key to keeping both the players and spectators safe during the four days of a tournament. Technology plays a large role in these predictions that keeps everyone safe on the turfgrass. Technology, available on most smart phones (as shown in the video), allows golfers to serve as their own meteorologists as they play a round of golf.

 

Related Science Concepts


         air pressure

         climate

         clouds

         condensation

         erosion

         evaporation

         forecast

         heat index

         humidity

         patterns

         precipitation

         predictions

         temperature

         water cycle

         wind

         wind chill


 

Take Action with Students

         A weather forecast uses science to make an estimate of what the weather will be like in the future. The scientific concepts that meteorologists use include air pressure, temperature, dew point temperature, and wind speed and direction. These variables and more are found on weather maps. These data show the particular weather conditions at specific weather observing stations. Stations are found in big cities (usually at airports) and little towns throughout the United States. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) gathers these data and posts weather maps at http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/dailywxmap/index.html. Have students examine several consecutive days of maps for a specific location and make generalizations of the data depicted and how those data might be used to predict the weather. They might also discuss important information that would help to make forecasts more reliable that may not be included.

         Have students collect the data found on weather maps for the local area. After a few days, have them compare their data with weather maps from NOAA.

         Examine what science has to say about keeping safe during a thunderstorm. Most municipal golf courses have an open shelter on the front and back nine. They usually consist of a roof supported on four poles. Golfers not only use the shelters to get out of the rain but also during thunderstorms. Explain, based on what science says about lightning, if these shelters are good ideas.

         Thunderstorms aren't the only events that produce lightning. Produce a diagram that analyzes and compares the events that produce lightning.

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Connect to Technology

In SOG: Meteorology & Weather technology abounds. Paul Goodloe uses scientific models of the atmosphere that are based on the data from hundreds of weather balloons that are released across the nation. He uses this information as collected in the National Weather Service database. Technology is also used to measure/monitor humidity, water vapor in the air, and air pressure. Technology helps forecasts to be fairly accurate over the range of one to three days but golfers know that forecasts will never be 100% accurate.

 

Take Action with Students

         Students might make simple instruments to monitor weather. Easy-to-follow instructions and ideas for gathering data can be found on the Internet, such as those at: http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/wwatch/gather_data/anemometer.htm

         Divide the class into groups. Have each group select a technological device, such as Doppler radar, that provides data used in making a weather forecast. Groups should use available technological assets to create a presentation of how their device helps make forecasting the weather more accurate.

         Have students read the article at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/a-better-eye-on-the-storm/. What benefits will these new technologies offer to the game of golf?

         Have students make a historical timeline of equipment/devices that have been used to forecast the weather.

         Many students may have smartphones of one type or another. Smartphones have changed the way people obtain news and other media. It’s done the same for weather. Have students explain how their phones are tools that allow them to monitor the weather.

         Satellites are about as hi-tech as you can get. NOAA maintains environmental satellites that provide data from space to help to understand what is going on in Earth’s atmosphere. Why does NOAA need two satellite systems to get this job done?

         Computers and the software they use to model weather patterns play a major role in meteorology. Have students research how powerful the devices used by meteorologists are.

 

 Connect to Engineering

The engineering design process uses human ingenuity to draw from science, math, and technology to solve a problem. In this case, the problem was keeping people safe at golf tournaments by monitoring and predicting what the weather is going to be. Meteorologist use technology and their experience to monitor the movement of air masses and the changing weather those air masses cause. On-site meteorologist and weather systems are used to monitor approaching storms so that players and spectators can be moved to safety before a storm arrives. Climate engineering is now in its infancy. Some have given it the name geoengineering. Its aim is to intervene in Earth's climate system to reduce global warming. The possible positive and negative outcomes of geoengineering efforts are not fully understood at this point.

 

Take Action with Students

         According to AccuWeather.com approximately 50 people are killed by lightning in the United States each year (http://www.accuweather.com/en/features/trend/lightning-fatalities-avoid-bei/68706). Five percent of those fatalities occur on golf courses. Part of the

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design process involves breaking a problem down so that the solution that will be put in

place will actually solve all aspects of the problem. Identify what is needed to keep both players and spectators at a golf tournament safe during a thunderstorm.

         Make a diagram or a model of an inexpensive golf course structure that could be located on every other hole that would provide shelter from lightning.

         The Masters is the first major golf tournament played each year. It was home to the Eisenhower Tree (a loblolly pine) that was given its name when President Eisenhower proposed that it be cut down because he had hit it so many times. What the President of the United States couldn't get done in 1956 was accomplished by an ice storm in 2014. This tree was sorely missed by countless professional golfers. Lightning kills many more trees on golf courses around the world each year. Do some research to determine if golf courses protect their valuable arboreal (of or relating to trees) resources from lightening and how it is done. What recommendations would you make for a better system to accomplish this task?

         Geoengineering has been mentioned. Have students determine whether it would be desirable to manipulate the weather for golfers before a major tournament takes place.

 

 Connect to Math

While SOG: Meteorology & Weather makes no direct connections to mathematics, math abounds in making every weather forecast. Data are mathematically examined in charts and graphs. Paul Goodloe uses scientific models of the atmosphere that are based on placing observations into mathematical equations. A few math terms that are used in meteorology every day are: equations, scales, patterns, graphs, estimation, geometry, charts, trends, and measurement. Statistics are another way to connect meteorology to golf. While exact statistics will vary with the source, they all reflect the same general trends. Some sources to use include:

         http://www.lightningsafety.noaa.gov/statistics.htm

         http://www.accuweather.com/en/features/trend/lightning-fatalities-avoid-bei/68706

         http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6228a6.htm

         http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/06/0623_040623_lightningfacts.html

         http://www.nwas.org/links/lightning.php

 

Take Action with Students

         It is estimated that Earth is struck by lightning 100 times every second. What's the average number of times Earth is struck by lightning each year? This calculation might also just be done for a single day.

         Statistics show that 10% of people that are struck by lightning are killed. From 1959 to 2003 3,696 people were killed in lightning strikes in the United States. How many people were struck by lightning between 1959 and 2003? Also, 70% of people that are struck by lightning suffer serious long-term effects. How many people may have suffered serious long-term effects between 1959 and 2003?

         Explain how to calculate the odds of being struck by lightning. Compare the chances of getting struck by lightning with other causes of death for your age group.

         Positive lightning is very dangerous. Positive lightning is formed in the clouds at the top of a thunderstorm and can strike from 8 to 16 kilometers from the storm. What is the size of the land area that positive lightning can threaten? What implications does positive lightning

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have on golf course safety?

         Explore the "flash-to-bang" method of calculating the distance to a thunderstorm. Should it be something that all golfers consider an important safety tool when on the golf course? Why? Explain how this calculation uses the velocities of sound and light.

 

 

 

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 15.

 

 Explore Understanding

Guide a discussion sparked by showing a tool, images, or something else related to meteorology and weather. Use resources such as the following to find out what students know about weather safety.

         http://www.city-data.com/forum/weather/351297-weather-forecast-thread-190.html

         http://www.duskyswondersite.com/nature/weird-weather-2/

         http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-nature-rainbows/#/double-rainbow-reid_1399_600x450.jpg

         http://www.mtu.edu/news/stories/2010/july/might-make-your-hair-stand-end.html

         https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IXjOQykay3s) cxz

 

After breaking the ice on the topic you might move groups of students to the four corners of the room. In each corner, groups will discuss thunderstorm safety (or an aspect of weather and golf that you’ve assigned to each corner) to activate their background knowledge. Four corners can be highly engaging for students and only requires 5 to 10 minutes. Use the following or similar prompts to start students learning.

         One experience I have had with thunderstorms is….

         Golfers are able to keep safe by....

         The game of golf is made more difficult when weather conditions deteriorate because....

         I experience weather everyday when….

         One way I have seen weather safety change over time is….

         One way I think I could change the way players and spectators are kept safe at a golf tournament is….

         Other sports affected by thunderstorms….

         Things that affect thunderstorm safety include….

         The engineer/scientist can help golfers by....

         Technology that supports thunderstorm safety....

 

Show SOG: Meteorology & Weather and encourage students, as they watch, to take notes about why weather is a factor on the golf course and any expert recommendations. Continue the discussion of how a design team might improve a weather monitoring system or other design solution that would help with weather’s impact on the golf course using the following or similar prompts:

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         The video describes....

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         We learned from the video that….

         Something about what was done in the video that I connected to an event in my life was….

         One problem that a design team might try to solve was….

         The experts in the video explained that….

         Variables influencing the potential solutions include….

         Our efforts might be limited by.…

         Engineering has improved weather monitoring systems by….

         Technology has improved weather monitoring systems by….

         Weather smartphone applications could….

 

 Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions they have about improving a weather monitoring system, improving the accuracy of a weather forecast, or how to play better when the weather conditions are far from perfect. Groups should be encouraged to always develop questions that will push their understanding of weather and how it is tracked or how to play good golf when the weather changes, which may require print or online resources to supplement/deepen what they already know. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering problem that is researchable and/or testable. Bring groups together to discuss/share problems. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Some example questions that reflect engineering design problems are:

         What factors can be changed that might improve golf ball flight on a windy day?

         How do the rules of golf limit changes that can be made to a golf club during play?

         Would increasing/reducing the loft of a golf club improve play on a windy day?

         Is there additional information that would improve the accuracy of a weather forecast?

         Are there dimple patterns on a golf ball that allow for better play in windy conditions?

         What is the optimal way to swing a golf club to keep the ball low or make it go high?

         What is the ideal fabric to dry golf clubs and balls in wet conditions?

         How could we design a golf glove that will allow play to continue when the grips on golf clubs become wet due to weather?

         How can we predict how our design improvements will work on the golf course?

         How could an inexpensive shelter be designed that would keep golfers safe during dangerous weather?

         What is the quickest way to keep golfers and spectators safe during a golf tournament?

         What can be done to keep greens firm and fast although rain is in the forecast?

 

 Investigate Design Problems

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

 

Materials and the Inquiry Process

 

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Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation.

         To explore designing a golf glove that will grip when your golf clubs are wet: Students might use an appropriate student-sized golf glove, various work gloves, silicon adhesive (waterproof), tack cloth, rubber cement, water, rubber bands, golf rules concerning the glove, a golf club (with worn grip), rope, high capacity spring scale, or weights.

         To explore designing a weather monitoring system on the cheap: Students might use smart phones, smart phone app store, internet search engines, and a contact at a local golf course. Two weather monitoring systems are used by most golf courses. They cost between $15,000 and $20,000 and have ongoing annual subscriptions. Students could obtain the specifications/capabilities of these systems at earthnetworks.com and thorguard.com.

         To explore how to hit the golf ball high or low: Students might use a 7-iron, golf balls, small WIFFLE® or foam practice balls, tees, protractors, and the rules of golf concerning variable-faced golf clubs.

         Measuring tools such as meter sticks, stopwatches, magnifying lenses, electronic balances, protractors, smart phone video cameras, graduated cylinders, protractors, rulers or measuring tape, and calculators might also be useful in the design process.

 

Safety Considerations: You and students should wear cover goggles. Review safe use of tools and measurement devices as needed. Augment your own safety procedures with NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

 Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 15)

1.      Give students time to discuss their various questions. Groups might agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might evaluate different problems and solutions. Some ideas that could serve as models for this activity include: How can we design a golf glove that will grip a wet golf club? How can we use smartphones and apps to replicate the functions of a weather monitoring system? How is it possible to change the trajectory of a golf ball so as to have an advantage when playing in the rain? To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

         The design problem we are solving is….

         Materials we could use to implement our design are….

         The science concepts involved in our design include….

         The math concepts involved in our design include….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Barriers to success that we anticipate are….

         Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

2.      Lead discussions to establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions might be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money.

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are…and we will determine them by....

         Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

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3.      Have students determine the dependent variable they will use to evaluate their design. Check the students' understandings of each variable. In the examples given above the variables might be how much weight can be lifted when the wet grip of the golf club is grasped by our tacky golf glove, the accuracy of the weather monitoring system, or if it’s possible to manipulate the golf swing to produce a low or high ball flight. To do this, have students determine other variables associated with the problem they are trying to solve and consider how they will measure or control all of the variables. Then have them determine what data/evidence they need to collect to evaluate the success of their design. Students need to confirm that their design addresses the science concepts behind the investigation.

4.      Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is....

         We will change our clubface to....

         We will test our prototype or model by….

         We will make design decisions, or changes to the independent variable, such as … to observe what happens to the dependent variable.

         The data we will collect are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         We will measure our success by….

5.      Allow students to spend some time working with the materials they have decided to use to implement their design. As students work with the materials, suggest that they reexamine their problem(s), write down the procedures they intend to follow, and how they will test their design and collect the data necessary to revise their design. Collecting evidence to promote future iterations and innovations is a critical step in the engineering design cycle. Guide students  with prompts such as the following.

         Information we need to understand before designing our prototype includes….

         We will construct our prototype or model by….

         While constructing our prototype or model we will….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

         Thinking about future innovation we….

         We will represent our data by….

         Mathematical models we can use in our investigation include…

6.      Be sure to work with students to develop safe procedures that keep the variables not being tested as constant as possible, allowing them to make accurate measurements.

7.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution, as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to optimize their solutions and what they have learned. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

 

 Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 16–17)

The following exemplifies one way students might design solutions to meteorology problems.

 

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Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will build and test their designs, but insist

that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. You might include constraints for issues of safety, time, or materials.

 

1.      Give students time to discuss their selected problem(s) and why they are doing what they are planning.  Allow time for groups to examine the available materials. Guide whole-class or small-group discussions to identify the problem being solved and then to identify criteria and constraints against which solutions will be developed. For example, the golf glove should look like a plain glove and not incorporate material on the glove that adheres to material on the grip. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money. Use prompts such as the following:

         The design problem we are solving is….

         We are designing a golf glove that will….

         Materials we could use to implement our design are….

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

         We will make a model golf glove to....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of the success of our design includes….

2.      Encourage students to think about how they can design and construct a golf glove that will grip a wet golf club, considering variables such as constraints made by the rules of golf, material limitations, and how to keep the force gripping the golf club consistent. Guide the class or individuals, to establish criteria and constraints for the solution to the problem. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, and money. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is....

         Factors influencing the interaction between a golf glove and a wet golf grip include….

         We can build a golf glove with augmented gripping capabilities using….

         Constraints we must deal with include….

         Our model golf glove will be to....

         One thing we will need to do with the ... is....

         We’re not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

         Another thing we will need to do with the golf glove is....

         We think ourchanges will increase the gripof the golf glove because....

         The golf glove we have designed is similar to an actual golf glove because…

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are….

3.      Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection strategy prior to designing their model glove. Provide students with the following prompts to guide how they will collect evidence for evaluating their design:

         We will test our design by….

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         We will change the glove’s design in the following ways to see the relationship to the dependent variable….

         The data (dependent variable) we will collect are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         We will use evidence such as _____ to determine the need for additional changes such as….

         Our design can be justified by….

4.      Students plan and design a golf glove that will grip (but not stick to) a wet golf club grip from the materials at hand. Students might design and build from a student-sized golf glove that has been modified by covering its palm area with a rougher material that might increase the friction between it and the wet golf grip. It might also be designed from a tight fitting work glove that has had a pattern of gripping ‘dots’ placed across the surface of its palm, or a combination of other materials. Encourage multiple trials of pulling the wet golf club that is attached to the high capacity spring scale.The hand in the glove should grip the wet golf club in a consistent manner during each trial.

5.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

 

 Media Research Option

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy –

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources. Students might begin by researching why they are doing this media investigation. They might compare different outdoor sports and the weather monitoring systems that are used to keep players and spectators safe. They would learn why some are “better” than others. Students may synthesize a hybrid system that would offer improvements to golf course safety. Students should brainstorm to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet search engines that might result in resources that will help them answer the question. Review how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and how to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Words and phrases associated with our question are….

         The reliability of our sources was established by….

         The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….

         Our research might feed into an engineering design solution such as….

         To conduct the investigation safely using the Internet, we will….

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 Related Internet Resources

Weather Prediction:

         http://www.edheads.org/activities/weather/

         http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/wwatch/

         http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es2002/es2002page01.cfm?chapter_no=20\

         http://www.intellicast.com/National/Radar/Current.aspx?animate=true

         http://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/forecasttips.html

 

Weather and Golf Tournaments:

         http://www.lightningsafety.com/nlsi_pls/golfsafetyrecommend.html

         http://www.accuweather.com/en/features/trend/golf-lightning-safety/53601

         http://video.about.com/golf/Golf-Course-Safety-Tips.htm

Weather and the Rules of Golf:

         http://golf.about.com/cs/rulesofgolf/a/rule6_3.htm

         http://www.randa.org/en/Rules-and-Amateur-Status/Guidance-on-Running-a-Competition.aspx?chapter=5&section=7

         http://www.golfdigest.com/magazine/2011-08/kaspriske-rules-column

 

Impact of Weather on Golf Courses:

         http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2014-05-02/sports/ct-chicago-golf-spt-0503-20140503_1_greens-fairways-frank-jemsek

         https://golfcoursemanagement.randa.org/en/Features/2014/03/Golf-facing-a-storm-of-extreme-weather.aspx

         http://www.greensdrainage.com/pdfs/linesofdefense.pdf

 

Impact of Weather on the Golf Shot:

         http://www.golfdigest.com/golf-tours-news/2007-08/gw070803pgaweather

         http://irishweatheronline.wordpress.com/how-weather-works/how-weather-affects-your-golf-shots/

         http://golftips.golfsmith.com/weather-affect-game-golf-2053.html

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their design investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements in accepted units. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bydata recorded over the past two months, we claim that our smartphone/app-based weather monitoring system was more accurate than that used by the local golf course because it identified approaching thunderstorms earlier and was better at identifying which storms would present lightning strikes to the golf course itself and the immediate surrounding area.

 

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Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were similar to those of other teams in the class in that our redesigned golf glove was able to grip the wet golf club with more than twice the force of a regular golf glove.

 

 Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs while recognizing that there are multiple ways to solve any problem. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this project because evidence showed that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         It is important to….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One concept I now understand (or understand better) or could teach someone….

 

  Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 18.

 

 

 

Integrate Video in Instruction

Bellringer: Use the following ideas as prompts for Quick Writes. (http://nrhs.nred.org/www/nred_nrhs/site/hosting/Literacy%20Website/Literacy%20Strategy%20Templates/Quick_Write__description.pdf).

         Show the video from 3:27–3:49. Students address how to explain the effects of elevation on the game of golf.

         Show the video from 4:09–4:20. Students write to explain how they think experience can help a golfer play in the rain.

         Show the video from 3:50–4:08. Weather forecasts are pretty good for one to three days out. Students address the implications of this for golfers.

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         Show the video from 0:41–0:48. The clip ends with player and caddies sitting on a bench to get out of the weather. Students should predict the thoughts of the players (concerning play) as they wait out the weather.

         Show the video from 3:18–3:21. Have students write their predictions of just how humidity impacts the golf ball.

 

 Using the 5E Approach?

If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:

         Explore: Use the Design Investigations section of the Facilitate Inquiry to support your lessons on meteorology and weather. Main concepts should include the impact of different weather conditions and the safety issues raised by weather forecasting.

 

         Elaborate: Show students SOG: Meteorology & Weather, focusing on the section from 3:18 to 3:50 that discusses how humidity and air pressure effect the flight of the golf ball. Have students research the mathematical relationship between humidity and air pressure. Students should elaborate, backed by mathematics, on how the distance the golf ball travels changes under various combinations of these two variables.

 

Connect to…English/Language Arts

Show SOG: Meteorology & Weather from 2:22–2:31.

         Read http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fcst/mth/prst.rxml to review how weather is forecast. Do other research as needed. Write a persuasive paper that supports or repudiates the accuracy of making forecasts.

         Locate sources and make a one-page flyer that presents the tools used by meteorologists.

         Locate sources and make a brochure that will keep golfers and spectators safe at a tournament.

  

Connect to … Math

         Show 1:42–2:21 and have students discuss cloud conditions needed for precipitation. Use the windows in your classroom to allow students to conduct a long-term activity in which they examine the relationship between cloud cover and the amount of precipitation that falls. Students should make predictions about the percent of cloud cover present and precipitation in their science notebooks first. You might pass out a sheet protector to each student (or groups of students) and have them design a grid that would allow them to generalize for the percent of the sky that is covered by clouds based on what can be seen out your classroom window. Students could then decide on one instrument that will be used by the class and how precipitation will be recorded. Standards will have to be established for observations and the math required.

         Students could also attempt a similar activity with a digital camera. They would create a sky diary by photographing the same portion of the sky at the same time each day.

 

Use Video as a Writing Prompt

         Show SOG: Meteorology & Weather from 0:41–1:02. A famous player once said that on the golf course, the weather is the same for everyone. Do some research (perhaps:

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http://www.barryrhodes.com/2010/01/playing-golf-in-bad-weather-conditions.html) and explain to the reader of your paper the sense behind some of the golf rules that have been put in place for playing during inclement weather and what is the overall purpose of each of them.

         Write a 30- or 60-second Public Service Announcement to advise golfers and spectators on weather safety when on the golf course.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Meteorology & Weather

Use this as a guide to design and test your solution according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

Our class discussion and the video make me think about problems such as….

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will make and test your design solution. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

         The materials we will use include….

         Our criteria for success are….

         Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

         The constraints within which we will work are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         In redesigning innovations we incorporated included….

         An idea that I understand better or could teach others is....

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Meteorology & Weather

Use this as a guide to design and test a golf glove according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

How could we design a golf glove that will allow play to continue when the grips on golf clubs become wet due to weather?

 

Identify Problems

         How can we make a golf glove that is comfortable to wear that will be effective in wet playing conditions?

         How can we make a golf glove that grips without being sticky?

         What factors should we consider changing?

         How can we be certain that our design will be an accurate test of the science concepts we are examining?

         How can we confirm that our solution would hold up during an entire round of golf played in nonstop rain?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group how you might implement your design with available materials. Use these prompts to help you.

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include….

         Our design will look like....

         We think these changes willmake an ongoing solid connection with the golf club because....

         We will represent our data in the following way(s)….

         We will compare the data from each trial by….

         We will analyze the overall data by….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your observations and data in tables such as the one below. In the Design Changes/Trial # column describe the changes you made to your golf glove optimize the strength of the pull on the wet golf grip. Make sketches of the changes you make to your design.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Design Iteration

Describe Changes/Trial #

Strength of Pull (Pounds or Newtons)

1

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

Average

 

2

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         Describe how the changes you made to the design of your glove impacted the strength of your grip.

         Describe how your data helped you make decisions to change your design.

         What design changes caused the greatest impact in observed results?

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

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         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         One thing I understand or could teach others….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial problem

Problem had too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was insufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Data and Analysis (based on iterations)

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Science OF GOLF: Meteorology & Weather

Standards Connections

 

Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

Weather and Climate

3-ESS2-1. Represent data in tables and graphical displays to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season.

3-ESS2-2. Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world.

3-ESS3-1. Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weather-related hazard.

5-ESS2-1. Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.

 

MS.Weather and Climate

MS-ESS2-5.Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.

MS-ESS2-6. Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.

MS-ESS3-5. Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century.

 

MS.Human Impacts

MS-ESS3-2. Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.

MS-ESS3-3. Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.

MS-ESS3-4. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems.

 

HS.Weather and Climate

HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.

HS-ESS3-5. Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems.

 

HS.Human Sustainability

HS-ESS3-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.

HS-ESS3-4. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.

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* HS-ESS3-6. Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.

 

Engineering Design

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

 

 Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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