SCIENCE OF GOLF: Math of Golf Scoring  STEM Lesson Plan (Grades 612)
Objective:
Students will investigate questions about the mathematical processes involved in golf scoring and averaging data.
Introduction Notes:
Science of GOLF
Math of Golf Scoring
STEM Lesson Plan adaptable for Grades 6–12
Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.
Video produced by NBC Learn in partnership with the USGA and Chevron.
Background and Planning Information.............................................................. 2
About the Video....................................................................................................................... 2
Video Timeline ........................................................................................................................ 2
Next Generation Science Standards........................................................................................ 2
Common Core Standards for Mathematics............................................................................ 2
Promote STEM with Video................................................................................ 3
Connect to Science................................................................................................................... 3
Connect to Technology............................................................................................................ 4
Connect to Engineering........................................................................................................... 4
Connect to Math...................................................................................................................... 5
Facilitate MATH Inquiry.................................................................................... 5
Explore Understanding............................................................................................................ 5
Ask Beginning Questions......................................................................................................... 6
Design Investigations............................................................................................................... 6
Possible Materials........................................................................................................ 6
Open Choice Approach................................................................................................ 6
Focused Approach........................................................................................................ 6
Media Research Option............................................................................................... 8
Make a Claim Backed by Evidence.......................................................................................... 8
Compare Findings.................................................................................................................... 9
Reflect on Learning.................................................................................................................. 9
Inquiry Assessment.................................................................................................................. 9
Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan........................................................... 9
Integrate Video in Instruction................................................................................................. 9
Real World Connections.............................................................................................. 9
Homework.................................................................................................................. 10
Using the 5E Approach?............................................................................................. 10
Connect to … Language Arts.................................................................................................. 10
Connect to … Physical Education.......................................................................................... 10
Use Video as a Writing Prompt............................................................................................. 10
Copy Masters ................................................................................................. 11
Open Choice Inquiry Guide for Students.............................................................................. 11
Focused Inquiry Guide for Students..................................................................................... 12
Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations...................................................................... 14
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Background and Planning Information
About the Video
This video discusses how golf scores are tabulated and totaled, and introduces the concept of par. It also shows alternate methods of calculating scores, including that of adding up the differences relative to par, whether positive (over par) or negative (under par). The video features interviews with Ross Galarneault, of the United States Golf Association’s (USGA’s) Golf Handicap and Information Network, plus brief interviews with a few professional golfers.
Video Timeline
0:00 0:15 Series opening
0:16 0:30 Introducing the concept of scoring in golf
0:31 0:40 Introducing Ross Galarneault
0:41 1:34 Describing stroke play, handicap, and net score
1:35 2:00 Defining course par
2:01 2:20 Calculating score by comparing to par in terms of bogeys and birdies
2:21 3:23 Use of negative and positive numbers in scoring
3:24 4:07 Discussing use of score relative to par on leaderboards, and aggregate score
4:08 4:46 Discussing cuts at tournaments and extrapolating partial scores
4:47 5:19 Discussing use of statistics to improve play
5:20 5:27 Summary
5:28 5:44 Closing credits
Language Support: To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.
Next Generation Science Standards
The investigation described in Facilitate MATH Inquiry supports Practices for K–12 Science Classrooms.
Science and Engineering Practices
• Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements, and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.
• Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.
• Develop a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.
• Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations.
• Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.
Common Core Standards for Mathematics
The investigation described in Facilitate MATH Inquiry supports mathematics instruction. The complete text for the following standards can be accessed at: http://www.corestandards.org.
CCSS.Math.Practice.MP1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
CCSS.Math.Practice.MP2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
CCSS.Math.Practice.MP5 Use appropriate tools strategically.
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CCSS.Math.Practice.MP6 Attend to precision.
CCSS.Math.Practice.MP8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.5 Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values…; use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in realworld contexts….
CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.6a. Understand a rational number as a point on the number line… Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line….
CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.6b. Understand a rational number as a point on the number line… Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane….
CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.6c. Understand a rational number as a point on the number line… Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram….
CCSS.Math.Content.6.SP. 3. Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.
CCSS.Math.Content.HS.SIC.2. Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given datagenerating process, e.g., using simulation.
Promote STEM with Video
Connect to Science
Statistics – including various types of scores, and reference to some standard (like golf’s par) – are very important in science. A frequent problem in science is how to decide whether or not a particular hypothesis can account for the observations. Usually, the answer is not clearcut, but a decision can be made based on statistical tests (essentially scores), which must rise to a certain level (like par) in order for a hypothesis to be accepted or the null hypothesis to be rejected. The golf score also can be related to error analysis. If par is the accepted value, then the score (+1, −1, etc.) represents the positive or negative error in the process. This is typically expressed as percent error, but could be absolute error as well.
Take Action with Students
• Have students brainstorm to think of scientific problems in which statistics might be employed to decide whether or not a certain hypothesis should be accepted. Examples might include studies in which a new medicine is tested against a placebo, to see if the medicine has any benefit. The first step would be to reject the null hypothesis: that the medicine and the placebo produce the same results. Ask students to state what level of certainty they would expect before being willing to claim that the medicine is effective (for example, a lessthan 5% chance that the null hypothesis is correct).
• Have students do Internet searches to find examples of the use of statistical significance in science, and then share these findings with the class.
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Connect to Technology
As with almost every other sport, hobby, or area of interest, technology provides new ways to accomplish old tasks. Golf scoring is no exception. At one time, people interested in how to use their scores to improve their games were excited that handheld calculators became affordable. Today, entering their scores on a mobile phone app gives them data to discuss with their coach or other players immediately after the round. Scoreboard technology has changed as well—from handdrawn signs to interchangeable panels to digital displays. Today, tournament players can find it very difficult to avoid seeing their standings during the round.
Take Action with Students
• Have students do an Internet search on combinations of words such as golf, score, technology, and apps. They will likely find many applications for computers or mobile devices, to help golfers keep or analyze scores. Optionally, students might obtain free or perhaps purchase lowcost apps, and try them out. Ask students whether or not the applications they found are truly useful, and what advantages or disadvantages they might have, compared with traditional score cards.
• Encourage students to explore how golf scoreboard technology has evolved. They might begin their Internet searches at sites such as the following:
http://www.mrscoreboards.com.au/OtherSports/DigitalScorers/DigitalScorers.asp
http://www.golfconversations.com/2011/01/17/mikekutcherkeeperofthescoreboard/
Connect to Engineering
In engineering, a product is expected to meet certain criteria. These may be rather standard expectations for an entire class of products, or may be novel goals set by the designer for especially innovative products. The idea of meeting a standard or benchmark is very similar to the golf concept of par, presented in the video. Like most engineering criteria, par is a challenging but attainable goal, which varies somewhat with the situation (i.e., different holes have different par values, much as different products may be designed to different standards). In the case of golf, par is a sort of maximum value, so that lower scores (under par) are good. In other cases, minimum values are the criteria (e.g., the battery must last at least nine hours while powering a standard flashlight). Finally, sometimes a range is specified (e.g., the drill bit must be more than some minimum diameter, and less than some maximum diameter).
Take Action with Students
• Ask students to brainstorm to think of common products (e.g., cars, washing machines, electric drills, eyeglasses) and then think of what types of criteria they might be expected to meet. Then, have them do research to find actual design criteria for such products, and compare any that match the students’ types to see if the official criteria are close to students’ expectations.
• Students might research the development of and need for engineering standards set forth by organizations such as Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) International (http://www.sae.org) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (http://www.iso.org/iso/home.html).
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Connect to Math
Inmath, number lines, which are featured in the video, are often used to represent relationships among different quantities, and can be used to illustrate the meaning of positive and negative numbers. Number lines also allow students to visualize adding (as moving to the right on a number line) and subtracting (moving to the left on the number line).
Take Action with Students
• Have students brainstorm to think of applications of number lines. Examples might include time lines for historical events, mile markers on interstate highways, and thermometers (when represented vertically).
• Ask students to brainstorm applications of simultaneous use of multiple number lines. Examples might include the two crossed number lines of a Cartesian coordinate plane, the crossed lines of the imaginary and real axes of a complex plane, or latitude and longitude (to which a third line – elevation – can be added). Suggest to students that the need for multiple number lines implies higher dimensions, so that a dimension is basically something for which a number line is needed.
Facilitate MATH Inquiry
Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the researchbased science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 11.
Explore Understanding
Ask students to consider the question of how the order of mathematical operations might make calculations more or less convenient, and how to determine which particular types of data are most useful for a given exercise. Use prompts such as the following.
• The associative property of addition states that….
• When mentally adding large sets of numbers, I….
• The average (or arithmetic mean) of a set of numbers is….
• A shortcut for finding the average of a set of numbers might be….
• The term par generally refers to….
Show the video Science of Golf: Scoring. Again, ask students how the order of mathematical operations might make calculations more or less convenient. Continue the discussion of the mathematics of scoring with prompts such as the following.
• When I watched the video, I thought about….
• Ways to keep score in golf include….
• An advantage of the relativetopar method is….
• The relativetopar method might be misleading for predicting a final score depending on exactly how many and which holes have been played because….
• Other areas besides golf, where such a choice of statistical methods might exist, include….
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Ask Beginning Questions
Stimulate smallgroup discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these questions…. Then have groups list questions they have about the challenges of calculating totals or averages for large sets of numbers. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to be researchable and/or testable. The following are some examples.
• When adding many numbers, is it better to do the whole computation at once, or in parts?
• Are there any advantages or disadvantages to knowing an incomplete score?
• How are standards (such as par, the size of a baseball diamond) determined?
Design Investigations
Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.
Possible Materials: Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials you have available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions, or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation. In this inquiry, students might generate their own data set or use any source of large amounts of data, especially for which totals or averages are meaningful. Data can be found in books or on the Internet, or collected by students using any measurement that can be repeated many times, with somewhat varying results. See an example in the Focused Approach section.
Safety Considerations To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.
Open Choice Approach (Copy Master page 11)
Groups might come together to agree on one question for which they will explore an answer, or each group might explore something different. Students should brainstorm to form a plan they would have to follow in order to answer the question, which might include researching background information. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to gather valid data. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:
• Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….
• We might find data from online or other sources by….
• We might generate our own data by….
• We will calculate totals or averages of our data by….
• We might test our method by….
• To conduct the investigation safely, we will….
Focused Approach (Copy Master pages 12–13)
The following exemplifies how students might obtain and use data to explore different methods for computing totals or averages. The particular subject suggested here is weather data, readily available online at http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/, where students can click on any location. Clicking on this page should bring up a page with an option called Preliminary Monthly Climate Data (CF6). You may then choose the nearest listed city and retrieve data for the current month, or a past month. For each day, the maximum, minimum, average [defined as (max+min)/2, and rounded off], and departure of this average from the normal (over the period 1981–2010) are listed. Averages for the maximum and minimum temperatures, as well as the overall average and its departure from normal, are listed after the last day of the month,
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computed for all the days listed. Additional interesting data are given, but will not be discussed here. You may want to crop off the totals and averages at the bottom, as the students will be calculating these themselves and comparing them.
1. After students examine the monthly climate data you have made available, ask them to determine the normal average temperature (par, by analogy with golf) for the month.
• How can we use the average temperature and its departure from normal to find the daily normal temperature?
• Is the normal temperature the same for each day? Why or why not?
• By how much do the daily temperatures differ from normal?
2. Students might find the average of the actual daily average temperatures and the average of the normal values for each day, and then compare these two results.
• To find the average of all the daily average temperatures I would….
• To find the average of all the daily normal temperatures I would….
• I know the departure from normal for the month is +/− _____ because….
3. Students might now find the average of all the values (some likely positive and some likely negative) in the departure column, by finding their sum and dividing by the number of days. They might then add this to the average normal temperature for the month so far (found earlier) to get the actual average temperature for the month.
• I could also find the departure from normal for the month by….
• I calculated the actual average temperature for the month by _____, which compares to our previous departure calculation by….
• These results do/do not agree with our previous method in that….
4. Suggest to students that they scan through the daily values for maximum temperatures, and estimate a whole number (perhaps even a multiple of 5 or 10) that seems to be close to the average of the values. They then might go through the list, using how much above or below this value each day’s temperature was, and perhaps mentally tallying a total of these differences – perhaps by imagining a number line like the one in the video. (This is very similar to what a golfer might do, keeping track of how much under or over par he or she is). Students can then divide this total by the number of days, and add it to the roundedoff initial estimate, to get an average. Students might repeat this procedure for the minimum temperatures.
• I used the rounded off estimate of ____ for the average maximum (or minimum) temperature because….
• I calculated the total difference between the actual daily values and my estimate as +/−____by….
• I calculated the average difference between the actual daily values and my estimate as +/−____ by….
• I determined the average maximum (or minimum) temperature for the month to be ____ by….
• I calculated the monthly average temperature to be ____ by….
• The value I calculated for the average temperature for the month compares to other ways I calculated the value by….
• The method of comparing values to a rough estimate is easier/harder for me than the method of adding all the numbers up and dividing by how many there are because….
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5. You might now reveal to students the average values at the bottom of the table of data, which they can compare to their own.
• My values (are/are not) exactly the same as the ones in the table because….
• The purpose of the whole number sums (SM) listed above the averages might be to….
6. More advanced students might be encouraged to do a further analysis, especially if there are several days left in the month or if they are provided incomplete data from a previous month. In particular, they might try to predict the final average temperature (for any or all of maximum, minimum, and daily average) for the month when it is complete. This may involve looking at trends in the daily normal temperatures, and deciding whether any above or belownormal trends are likely to persist, or if some law of averages will try to correct them. (Note: this is a commonly held impression, but is not statistically valid in the sense of some force trying to make things average out.) Students may either wait until the end of the month, or be given the final values from a previous month, against which to compare their predictions.
• I think the normal temperatures for the rest of the month will be _____ because….
• I think the departure from normal for the rest of the month will be _____ because….
• I will predict the month’s final average temperature by….
• The difference between my predicted value and the actual one is _____ because….
• The assumption I made that caused the most error was….
7. As an additional or alternative exercise, advanced students might research the definitions of heating and cooling degree days (HDD and CDD in the table), and confirm that they get the same values as shown in the table. They might brainstorm to see if there is any way to determine these values from the overall monthly average temperature, or if it is necessary to use the sum of the daily values.
• The purpose of heating/cooling degree days is….
• Heating/cooling degree days are calculated by….
• We can/cannot compute these values using the overall monthly averages because….
Media Research Option
Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources. Students should brainstorm to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet search engines that might result in resources to help them answer the question. Review how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and how to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:
• Words and phrases associated with our question are….
• The reliability of our sources was established by….
• The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….
• Our research might feed into an engineering design solution such as….
• To conduct the investigation safely, we will….
Make a Claim Backed by Evidence
Students should analyze their data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence their data shows. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… we claim… because….
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An example claim might be: As evidenced by the fact that got the same answer for our temperature averages using both methods, we claim that these methods are equally valid, because the associative property of addition says that we can group numbers in any way while adding them.
Compare Findings
Encourage students to compare their ideas with others, such as classmates who investigated a similar (or different) question or system,or to compare their ideas with material they found on the Internet or in their textbooks, or heard from an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….
Students might make comparisons like the following:
Our method for calculating monthly average temperature is similar to the one shown in the video for tallying golf scores, because the normal daily mean temperatures against which we compared the actual daily averages were closely analogous to the par value for each hole.
Reflect on Learning
Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t know before. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:
• The claim made by the expert in the video is….
• I support or refute the expert’s claim because in my investigation….
• When thinking about the expert’s claims, I am confused as to why….
• Another investigation I would like to explore is….
Inquiry Assessment
See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 14.
Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan
Integrate Video in Instruction
Real World Connections: People often need to add and/or average lists of numbers, such as one’s average grade from a number of test scores or an average monthly electric bill. With calculators available, the usual method would be to compute these values directly. The mental trick of guessing an average (like a par value), and tallying the differences can be quick and effective, and also reinforces one’s ability to estimate averages of numbers at a glance. For example, have students generate a series of test scores such as 87, 92, 85, 93, and 91. Encourage them to find the average using a calculator, which will result in an average score of 89.8. Then have students compare each score to a quick guess of 90 and tally the ups and downs, which yields −1, so that the average is under 90 by 1/5, or 0.2, yielding the same 89.8 while dealing with only small numbers.
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Homework: Have students find some type of data that needs averaging or totaling, and lends itself to the alternate approaches discussed in the video and illustrated in the Focused Inquiry. Generally, this should be a list of numbers (preferably whole numbers) that do not vary too widely. Examples might include lists of games won each year by a certain major league baseball pitcher or by a team, or the number of days it rained each month in a given year. Have students compute the averages, and then bring the data to class to swap with other students’ data, to confirm the results.
Using the 5E Approach?
If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:
Explore: Have students brainstorm to think of ways they do mental math, and then share these with the class. If, as may be the case in this age of electronic calculators, they have little to suggest, ask them to do some mental math on the spot and then enquire as to how they did it. You might look at the associative, distributive, and commutative properties, and perhaps books or web sites that discuss quick tricks for doing mental math. Share some of these with students if they do not generate their own ideas. Additionally or alternatively, put lists of numbers on the board and ask students to quickly estimate sums and/or averages. Then, find exact values (by either method discussed in the Focused Inquiry) to see how close the students’ estimates were.
Evaluate: After watching the video and completing the inquiry, give students lists of numbers (golf scores or weather data, for example) for which to compute sums or averages, with or without the aid of a calculator. Grade for accuracy and/or time.
Connect to … Language Arts
The word “par” has a specific meaning in golf, but is also used in similar ways elsewhere in English (e.g., “I’m not feeling up to par”). Its golf usage, at least, suggests the existence of a standard, criterion, or benchmark – words that are very nearly synonyms, but may have subtly different connotations. Elicit from students sentences that clearly convey the distinctions.
Connect to … Physical Education
There are many types of scoring systems in sports. Many of them use points, sometimes awarded in varying amounts (e.g., in football and basketball), though some use times (e.g., swimming, running). Golf is unusual but not unique in having the lowest number win. (Another example is crosscountry running.) Have students brainstorm to come up with specific scoring systems used in different sports. Also, ask them to discuss the pros and cons of different systems.
Use Video as a Writing Prompt
Have students watch the video, and then try to explain in writing the differences between the two scoring methods: adding strokes on each hole, versus tallying differences from par. Ask that they be as specific, clear, and concise as possible. This may be a somewhat challenging task, as it is inherently a mathematical idea, required here to be expressed verbally.
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Copy Master: Open Choice Inquiry Guide for Students
Science of Golf: Scoring
Use this guide to investigate a question about how one might compare different mathematical methods of scoring or averaging data. Write your lab report in your science notebook.
Ask Beginning Questions
The video makes me think about these questions….
Design Investigations
Choose one question. How can you answer it? Brainstorm with your teammates. Write a procedure that controls variables and makes accurate measurements. Look up information as needed. Add safety precautions.
• Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….
• The data we will use are….
• The variables we will be studying are….
• The calculations we will make are….
• The methods we will compare are….
• We will evaluate our methods by….
• To conduct the investigation safely, we will….
Record Data and Observations
Record your observations. Organize your data in tables or graphs as appropriate.
Make a Claim Backed by Evidence
Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data show. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.
My Evidence 
My Claim 
My Reason 



Compare Findings
Review the video and then discuss your results with classmates who investigated the same or a similar question. Or do research on the Internet or talk with an expert. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….
Reflect on Learning
Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it change what you thought you knew?
• The claim made by the expert in the video is….
• I support or refute the expert’s claim because in my investigation….
• When thinking about the expert’s claims, I am confused as to why….
• Another investigation I would like to explore is….
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Copy Master: Focused Inquiry Guide for Students
Science of Golf: Scoring
Use this guide to investigate a question about how one might compare different mathematical methods of scoring or averaging data. Write your lab report in your science notebook.
Ask Beginning Questions
When adding many numbers, is it better to do the whole computation at once, or in parts?
Design Investigations
Brainstorm with your teammates about how to answer the question. Write a procedure that controls variables and allows you to gather valid data. Add safety precautions as needed. Use these prompts to help you design your investigation.
• We will get our data from….
• We will first compute monthly average temperature by….
• We will next compute monthly average temperature by….
• We will also compute….
• We will evaluate our methods by….
• To conduct the investigation safely, I need to….
Record Data and Observations
Organize your findings in tables or graphs as appropriate. Use the following guide to collect your data. N represents the number of days in the month.
Data 
Value 
Hint 
Normal average temperature for the month 

sum of normals/N 
Actual average temperature for the month 

sum of daily averages/N 
Departure from normal for month 


Average of departures from normal 

sum of departures from normal/N 
Actual average temperature for the month 

compare to the actual average temperature for the month 
Estimated average of daily maximum temperatures 

use a whole number 
Total departure of actual maximum temps from estimate 


Average departure of actual maximum temps from estimate 

total departure of actual max temps from estimate / N 
Average daily maximum temperature for month 


Estimated average of daily minimum temperatures 

use a whole number 
Total departure of actual minimum temps from estimate 


Average departure of actual minimum temps from estimate 

total departure of actual minimum temps from estimate / N 
Average daily minimum temperature for month 


Actual average temperature for the month 


Departure from normal for month 

compare the departure from normal for the month to the average of departures from normal 
Actual average daily maximum temperature for the month 

compare to the average daily maximum temperature and the average daily minimum temperature for the month 
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Ideas for AnalyzingData
• For each of the items where you were asked to compare to an earlier calculation, did you get exactly the same result? Why or why not?
• Which method do you believe would be easier to use when using a calculator or spreadsheet?
• Which method do you believe would be easier to use when doing mental (in your head) math?
• What is a possible reason for including the sums (on the SM line) for maximum and minimum temperatures, in addition to reporting the averages?
• What are some sources of error in our methods?
Make a Claim Backed by Evidence
Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data show. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.
My Evidence 
My Claim 
My Reason 



Compare Findings
Review the video and then discuss your results with classmates who did the investigation using the same or a similar system or with those who did the investigation using a different system. Or do research on the Internet or talk with an expert. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….
• My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….
Reflect on Learning
Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it change what you thought you knew?
• The claim made by the expert in the video is….
• I support (or refute) the expert’s claim because in my investigation….
• When thinking about the expert’s claims, I am confused as to why….
• Another investigation I would like to explore is….
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Copy Master: Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations
Criteria 
1 point 
2 points 
3 points 
Initial question 
Question had a yes/no answer, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable. 
Question was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation. 
Question clearly stated, researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation. 
Investigation design 
The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question. 
While the design supported the initial question, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, control of variables) was not sufficient. 
Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question. 
Variables 
Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified. 
While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present. 
Variables identified and controlled in a way that results in data that can be analyzed and compared. 
Safety procedures 
Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified. 
Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed. 
Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to. 
Observations and data 
Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, not recorded, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation. 
Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately. 
Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately. 
Claim 
No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it. 
Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation. 
Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence. 
Findings comparison 
Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial question. 
Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected. 
Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity. 
Reflection 
Student reflections were limited to a description of the procedure used. 
Student reflections were not related to the initial question. 
Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking. 
(14)