SCIENCE OF GOLF: Work, Energy, and Power - STEM Lesson Plan (Grades 6-12) Print

Objective:

Students will investigate questions about how to calculate energy gain and loss and power delivered during putts or other strokes.


Introduction Notes:

Science of GOLF

Work, Energy, and Power

STEM Lesson Plan adaptable for Grades 6–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in partnership with the USGA and Chevron.

 

Background and Planning Information............................................................ 2

About the Video........................................................................................................................... 2

Video Timeline ............................................................................................................................ 2

Next Generation Science Standards............................................................................................ 2

 

Promote STEM with Video............................................................................. 3

Connect to Science...................................................................................................................... 3

Connect to Technology................................................................................................................ 4

Connect to Engineering............................................................................................................... 4

Connect to Math.......................................................................................................................... 4

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry.............................................................................. 5

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................ 5

Ask Beginning Questions............................................................................................................. 6

Design Investigations................................................................................................................... 6

            Possible Materials........................................................................................................... 6

            Open Choice Approach.................................................................................................... 6

            Focused Approach............................................................................................................ 6

            Adapt for Middle School Students................................................................................... 8

            Media Research Option................................................................................................... 8

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence............................................................................................. 8

Compare Findings........................................................................................................................ 8

Reflect on Learning..................................................................................................................... 9

Inquiry Assessment...................................................................................................................... 9

 

Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan........................................................ 9

Integrate Video in Instruction...................................................................................................... 9

            Real World Connections.................................................................................................. 9

            Compare and Contrast.................................................................................................... 9

            Using the 5E Approach?................................................................................................... 9

Connect to … Economics............................................................................................................ 10

Connect to … Environmental Science........................................................................................ 10

Use Video as a Writing Prompt................................................................................................. 10

 

Copy Masters .............................................................................................. 11

Open Choice Inquiry Guide for Students................................................................................... 11

Focused Inquiry Guide for Students........................................................................................... 12

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations............................................................................ 14

 

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Background and Planning Information

 

About the Video

This video discusses how, in the context of putting in golf, work done on the ball changes energy from its potential to kinetic form.  It also shows sample calculations of the amount of work done, and the power – or rate – at which this work is done. It features interviews with professional golfer Suzann Pettersen; with Jim Hubbell, a research engineer with United States Golf Association (USGA); and with John Spitzer, Managing Director of Equipment Standards for the USGA.

 

Video Timeline

0:00     0:15     Series opening

0:16     0:35     Highlighting the importance of putting

0:36     1:09     Suzann Pettersen discussing her views on putting

1:10     1:41     Discussing putting as an illustration of work, energy, and power

1:42     2:11     Jim Hubbell discussing conversion of gravitational potential to kinetic energy

2:12     2:44     John Spitzer explaining the energy transfer process

2:45     3:16     Applying the law of conservation of energy to the putter-ball system

3:17     4:14     Defining work as force times distance, with example calculation

4:15     5:12     Defining power as work per unit time, with sample calculation

5:13     5:37     Suzann Pettersen’s summary

5:38     5:55     Closing credits

 

Language Support:  To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Next Generation Science Standards

Consider the investigation described in Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry section as part of a summative assessment for the following performance expectations. Refer to a NGSS document for connected Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

MS-PS2-1.  Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.

MS-PS2-4.  Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

HS-PS2-2.  Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

HS-PS2-1.  Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

 

Energy

MS-PS3-5.  Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the motion of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

 

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HS-PS3-3.  Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

HS-PS3-1.  Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system, when the change in energy of the other component(s), and the energy flows in and out of the system are known.

 

Engineering Design

MS-ETS1-3.  Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions, and identify best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet criteria for success.

HS-ETS1-2.  Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems, that can be solved through engineering.

HS-ETS1-3.  Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints – including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

 

Promote STEM with Video

 

Connect to Science

Work is the process by which energy is converted from one or more forms to one or more other forms. Power is the time rate at which work is performed. These concepts are central to the science of mechanics – a branch of physics. Help students apply these concepts to everyday situations to deepen students’ understanding.

 

Related Science Concepts

         work

         energy

         power

         rate

         mechanics

 

Take Action with Students

         Ask students to cite examples of what they would regard, in everyday language, as work. Record them without comment. Then, help students move to the scientific distinction of the term by having them identify:  a force being applied in these situations; the distance traveled in the direction of the force; and what form(s) of energy are being converted into what other form(s) of energy. Elicit from students how examples of activities commonly called work that do not involve a force applied over a distance, differ from those that do.

         Have students research the conversion factors among work/energy units (e.g., joules, calories, foot-pounds, kilowatt-hours) and among power units (e.g., watts, horsepower). Then guide them to make comparisons, such as how many light bulbs could be lit by the power of a race car, or how many candy bars are needed for the energy equivalent to 10 cents worth of electrical energy (using price per kilowatt-hour).

 

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         Have students climb a flight of stairs, timing the ascent and calculating the work as their weight times the height of the steps (e.g., weight of 600 newtons, times height of 4 meters, equals 2400 joules). Then have them divide this by the time to calculate their power output (e.g., 2400 joules, divided by 5 seconds, equals 480 watts equals 0.64 horsepower).

 

Connect to Technology

The video uses high-speed camera footage to show the behavior of the ball and club before, during, and after impact. This technology allows us to visualize and analyze many phenomena that happen too quickly to see otherwise. In fact, recent research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has led to femto-photography – recording so fast that it can show light itself (ultrashort pulses of light) in motion.

 

Take Action with Students

Encourage students to find videos on the Internet showing high-speed footage of many rapidly occurring phenomena – such as water droplets splashing or bullets piercing targets – or the latest research in femto-photography. Then ask them to find videos using the opposite technology (time-lapse photography) to show long-duration processes, such as flowers opening, clouds passing, or buildings being constructed.

 

Connect to Engineering

The engineering design process involves identifying problems and finding solutions, usually as part of an ongoing cycle of innovation. The design of the putter and the golf ball ensure a significant and repeatable transfer of energy from the club to the ball.

 

Take Action with Students

         Ask students to describe the putter and how it is used, and identify the variables that influence how much energy gets transferred to the ball.

         Have students research putter design and engineering to learn about the goals of putter design and how those goals are accomplished.

         Research the materials used to manufacture putters – what are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

 

Connect to Math

Inmath, a rate is a relationship between two quantities with different units, with the second quantity often being time. Occasionally, the term is used for a specific rate called speed, which may be called (rather vaguely) rate, as in distance equals rate times time (d = rt).

 

Take Action with Students

         Using the Design Investigations section of Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry as a guide, encourage students to make calculations of work, energy, and power from data derived in their investigation.

         Have students explain, using this definition, why power is a rate. Ask them to explain why electrical energy is sold by the kilowatt-hour, where the rate of energy usage is being multiplied by time to yield an amount of energy.

         Ask students to brainstorm to think of other commonly-used rates, including those in which the denominator is time (e.g., 15 dollars per hour), and in which it is not time (e.g., 20 miles per gallon).

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         Ask students to use examples of rates to make sketches or graphs showing the numerator of the rate on the vertical axis, and the denominator on the horizontal axis. For example, students could plot the distances that a car can travel given different amounts of gas, assuming a fixed rate such as 20 miles per gallon. Have students comment on the shape of the graph (straight line through origin) and on the meaning of the graph’s slope (vertical change divided by horizontal change); the slope is in fact the rate for the situation.

         Have students carefully and repeatedly watch the portion of the video from 3:44 to 5:09, and take notes on any values given or calculations done. In particular, there are claims that a force of 105.88 newtons is applied through a distance of 0.85 millimeters, and that this results in 90 millijoules of work. A bit later, the 90 millijoule figure is repeated, this time with a the video showing a speed of 2.0 meters per second being reached in 0.87 milliseconds, for a power of 103 watts. Ask students to use the given equations, along with kinematic ones – Newton’s second law (Fnet = ma) and the equation for kinetic energy (mv2/2), where v is velocity – to check the video’s calculations, and also to see what the mass of the ball must have been, and whether the two scenarios are consistent (which they very nearly are, allowing for some rounding). Students might work either alone or in groups. Encourage them to represent their thinking.

 

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 11.

 

Explore Understanding

Find out what students know about how energy is transferred from one form (e.g., gravitational potential) to another (e.g., kinetic), using the example of a golf club striking a golf ball, or other examples. Use prompts such as the following.

         Energy of the putter is initially in the form of….

         Before the putter strikes the ball, the putter’s energy is in the form of….

         While the ball is briefly compressed, some of the energy is in the form of….

         After the impact, the energy is in several forms, including….

         The process by which energy is converted between different forms is called….

         The time rate at which work is done is called….

 

Show the video Science of Golf: Work, Energy, and Power. Continue the discussion of the transfer of energy during a putt with prompts such as these:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         Work is calculated by….

         To calculate power, we must also know the….

         The golfer controls the amount of energy imparted to the ball primarily by….

 

 

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Ask Beginning Questions

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these questions…. Then have groups list questions they have about the challenges that must be surmounted in order to calculate: the amount of potential energy initially stored in a putter;  the work done on the ball by the putter; the amount of kinetic energy that ends up in the ball; and the power delivered by the putter to the ball during the collision.  Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to be researchable and/or testable. The following are some examples.

         How is gravitational potential energy calculated in general?

         What must we measure to find the gravitational potential energy lost as a putter swings?

         How is kinetic energy calculated in general?

         What must we measure to find the kinetic energy of the ball after it is hit?

         How can we estimate the power delivered by the putter during the collision?

 

Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials:  Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials you have available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions, or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation. In this inquiry, students might use materials such as a golf ball, a putter or a meter stick with a hole drilled near one end (through which a nail can be placed to serve as a pivot point), a stopwatch, a scale for finding masses, and a smooth floor (preferably not carpeted).

 

Safety Considerations: To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

Open Choice Approach (Copy Master page 11)

Groups might come together to agree on one question for which they will explore an answer, or each group might explore something different. Students should brainstorm to form a plan they would have to follow in order to answer the question, which might include researching background information. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to gather valid data. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         We might create a method for striking a golf ball by….

         The variables used in developing our method might be….

         We will calculate potential and kinetic energies and power by….

         We might test our method by….

         To conduct the investigation safely, we will….

 

Focused Approach (Copy Master pages 12–13)

The following exemplifies how students might develop a method for putting a golf ball, and finding what fraction of the putter’s energy is imparted to the golf bal,l and what fraction is lost to non-mechanical forms, along with an estimate of the power delivered by the putter during the collision.

 

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Note to Teachers: Some physics-based calculations are needed in this inquiry. For example, gravitational potential energy is given by mgh (mass times acceleration due to gravity, times height above reference level).  In the case of the putter, the height is that of the center of mass above, say, the floor. In the case of a meter stick, this is simply at the 50 cm mark; for a putter, one might try balancing it on a finger. Kinetic energy of the ball is generally mv2/2, but actually a fraction (about 2/7) of the ball’s total kinetic energy is in rotational form.

1.      After students examine the materials you have available for putting a golf ball, have them establish a method for allowing gravity to make the putter swing to hit the ball.

         Will we use a real putter, or another tool?

         What will we use as a support or pivot point to allow the putter to swing freely?

         How will we locate the center of mass of the putter?

         From what height(s) or angle(s) will we release the putter?

         How will we ensure that the putter hits the ball?

         How can the mass of the putter or other tool be varied?

2.      After developing a way to let gravity swing the putter to hit the ball consistently, students might release it from a carefully measured position, and allow it to strike the ball. At the moment it strikes the ball, they might start a stopwatch to time how long it takes the ball to reach a certain point, such as a wall. By measuring this time and distance, the average speed of the ball as it rolls can be calculated. Also, another lab group member might observe the height to which the putter rises after striking the ball.

         We will stop the stopwatch when the ball reaches….

         We will calculate the ball’s speed by….

3.      Students might now find the masses of the putter and the ball, and use these to calculate the initial gravitational potential energy of the putter and the final kinetic energy of the ball. Then they might conduct multiple trials.

         We will find the putter’s initial gravitational potential energy by….

         We will find the putter’s final gravitational potential energy by….

         We will find the ball’s kinetic energy by….

         Our value for the kinetic energy of the ball is an underestimate because…. (Note that this inquiry ignores the energy associated with the ball’s rotation.)

         The variation among the values is about….

         We might find the percentage error by….

4.      Students might now estimate the amount of time the putter was in contact with the ball via frame-by-frame analysis of video from their smart phones. This estimate could also be based on an estimated distance the putter and ball travel while in contact, along with some kinematic considerations. Students could then estimate the power delivered to the ball during contact.

         We will estimate the time of contact by….

         The value we will use for the time of contact is….

         We can calculate the power by….

5.      Students might consider how their methods, or another group’s methods, might be improved. If time permits, these improvements could be made and used to gather a new set of data.

         I could improve my own method by….

         We could improve another group’s method by….

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Adapt for Middle School Students

For middle school students, an alternative inquiry might be that of dropping golf balls, and seeing what fraction of the original drop height they bounce back to. This is a measure of the mechanical energy that remains after one bounce. This could inform a discussion of how the energy changes from gravitational to kinetic to elastic potential, to kinetic, and back to gravitational potential (with some losses to heat and sound). Note: Bouncing a golf ball is also a way for Algebra 1 students to investigate exponential decay.

 

Media Research Option

Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources. Students should brainstorm to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet search engines that might result in resources that will help them answer the question. Review how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and how to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Words and phrases associated with our question are….

         The reliability of our sources was established by….

         The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….

         Our research might feed into an engineering design solution such as….

         To conduct the investigation safely, we will….

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Students should analyze their data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence their data shows. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… we claim… because….

An example claim might be:  As evidenced by the kinetic energy of the ball being less than the difference between the initial and final gravitational potential energies of the putter, we claim that some of the energy must have been converted into heat, sound, or other vibrations, because the principle of conservation of energy dictates that the total of all types of energy after the collision must be the same as the total before the collision.

 

Compare Findings

Encourage students to compare their ideas with those of others, such as classmates who investigated a similar (or different) question or system, or to compare their ideas with material they found on the Internet or in their textbooks, or heard from an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

A larger fraction of the meter-stick putter’s energy was lost to the ball during our collision, as compared with the fraction lost by the actual putter in the video, because the smaller mass of the meter stick caused it to slow down more during impact with the ball.

 

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Reflect on Learning

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t know before. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         The claim made by the expert in the video is….

         I support or refute the expert’s claim because in my investigation….

         When thinking about the expert’s claims, I am confused as to why….

         Another investigation I would like to explore is….

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 14.

 

Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan

 

Integrate Video in Instruction

Real World Connections:  Golf clubs are not the only devices used to purposefully convert gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy.  A large number of devices, ranging from toys to clocks to weapons, employ this type of energy conversion. Have students brainstorm to think of examples; follow up with Internet searches to find more examples. Common examples of gravitational potential energy being used are weight-driven clocks and trebuchets. Many other devices use elastic potential energy, including wind-up toys or watches, and crossbows.

 

Compare and Contrast: The words “work,” “energy,” and “power” have very precise definitions in physics, including mathematical expressions and units. The same words have wider usage in everyday English language, with several (or even dozens of) definitions listed in dictionaries. Ask students to first define the words carefully as they are used in physics, including formulas and units, and then find dictionary definitions for them. Have students explain ways in which the physics and everyday meanings of these words are similar, and ways in which they are different. Note that in some cases, two or more of these words are used synonymously. Ask students to discuss how and why this can cause confusion for students in learning physics.

 

As an extension, students might consult classmates who speak other languages, or refer to foreign-language physics textbooks or sources online, to see if the words used in physics in these languages correspond to the same general-use words as they do in English.

 

Using the 5E Approach?

If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:

Explain:  Have students explain the differences between the words “work,” “energy,” and “power,” including the very specific ways in which they are related. This may involve terms such as “energy is the ability to do work,” or “power is the time rate at which work is done.”

Elaborate:  In the video, a putt is calculated to involve 90 millijoules of work, and 103 watts of power. On the other end of the energy spectrum of golf shots is the drive. Have students do research to gather information that will allow them to calculate the corresponding work and power for a drive. Before having them do the calculation, ask them to make educated guesses

 

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as to how many times greater these values are than the ones for a putt. To extend this further, have students brainstorm to think of a few non-golf energy transfers (e.g., kicking a soccer ball, a bullet leaving a gun, a sprinter leaving the blocks and reaching full speed), and then do research and calculate the work and power for these events.

 

Connect to … Economics

“Energy” is a broad concept encompassing many phenomena that may seem different, but that are similar in the deeper sense, that energy in them can be converted into other forms. In this regard, energy is a lot like money, which we use to ascribe similar value to widely different goods and services. A golf putt is a sort of transaction, in which some (but not all) of the club’s potential energy is used to “purchase” some kinetic energy of the ball, though with some “hidden fees” like heat and sound. Power, in joules per second (watts) is a rate of energy usage, much like a pay rate in dollars per hour. Many units for work and energy have been used through the centuries, including calories, foot-pounds, and joules, but there has been a tendency – or effort – to standardize such units (mainly joules now), much as diverse currencies may be subsumed into a few or just one (dollars being nearly universal, or various European currencies now replaced by euros). Energy and money are both man-made concepts, but are so useful that they are generally regarded as real. In fact, energy costs money! Start a discussion with students to elaborate on such ideas, and see how close of an analogy can be drawn between energy and money, including any ways in which the analogy fails.

 

Connect to … Environmental Science

Humans use energy in various ways: food, electricity, transportation, communication, etc. The amounts and rates of use (power) can be quantified, leading to many fascinating comparisons. For example, some humans may burn roughly 2500 kilocalories per day on metabolism (approximately 120 watts), but in developed nations, may use 20 or 30 times that much energy when the energy needed for heating and cooling homes, transportation, and manufacture of goods consumed is included. Have students use easily obtainable data to calculate some parts of their non-food personal energy usage. Such data might include their home’s monthly electric bill and the local cost per kilowatt-hour (a unit of energy equal to 3.6 million joules), or the number of miles they drive per month, along with their car’s gas mileage (miles per gallon) and the energy released from burning a gallon of gas. There are a multitude of other energies to which these can be compared, such as the amount of energy or power from sunlight striking the roof of a student’s home, or the gravitational potential energy lost by all the rain falling on that same roof.

 

Use Video as a Writing Prompt

Remind students that a golfer’s goal in putting is a “Goldilocks” goal:  to impart an amount of energy to the ball that is not too much or not too little, but just right, so that the ball rolls close to the hole, if not in the hole. Too much or too little energy and the second putt can be more difficult than the first. Have students create a story board or cartoon from the golf ball’s point of view about the work, energy, and power involved in the action of putting.

 

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Copy Master: Open Choice Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Science of Golf: Work, Energy, and Power

Use this guide to investigate a question about how one might putt a golf ball, and calculate energy gain and loss and power delivered. Write your lab report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

The video makes me think about these questions….

 

Design Investigations

Choose one question. How can you answer it? Brainstorm with your teammates. Write a procedure that controls variables and makes accurate measurements. Look up information and add safety precautions as needed.

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         We will construct any equipment needed by….

         The procedure to be used with our equipment is….

         The variables we will be measuring are….

         We will determine gravitational potential energy by….

         We will determine kinetic energy by….

         To conduct the investigation safely, we will….

 

Record Data and Observations

Record your observations. Organize your data in tables or graphs as appropriate.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data show. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Compare Findings

Review the video and then discuss your results with classmates who investigated the same or a similar question. Or do research on the Internet or talk with an expert. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it change what you thought you knew?

         The claim made by the expert in the video is….

         I support or refute the expert’s claim because in my investigation….

         When thinking about the expert’s claims, I am confused as to why….

         Another investigation I would like to explore is….

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COPY MASTER: Focused Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Science of Golf: Work, Energy, and Power

Use this guide to investigate a question about how one might putt a golf ball, and calculate energy gain or loss and power delivered. Write your lab report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

How will we determine the amount of gravitational potential energy lost by the putter?

How will we determine the amount of kinetic energy gained by the ball?

How will we estimate the power delivered during contact?

 

Design Investigations

Brainstorm with your teammates about how to answer the question. Write a procedure that controls variables and allows you to gather valid data. Add safety precautions as needed. Use these prompts to help you design your investigation.

         We will raise the putter to an angle or height of….

         The center of mass of the putter will fall a distance of….

         The gravitational potential energy lost by the putter will be….

         We will find the speed of the golf ball by….

         We will find the final gravitational potential energy of the putter after impact by….

         We will account for any difference between lost gravitational potential and gained kinetic energy by….

         To conduct the investigation safely, I need to….

 

Record Data and Observations

Organize your observations in tables and graphs as appropriate. An example follows. Be sure to measure the mass of the putter and the golf ball and the distance of the putter’s center of mass from the lower end.

Energy Transfers During Putt

Trial

d

t

v

KE

hdown

GPEdown

hup

GPEup

KE/GPEdown

(KE+GPEup)/ GPEdown

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ave.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key for example data table:


d = distance rolled by golf ball (meters)

t = time golf ball rolled (seconds)

v = average speed of rolling golf ball (meters per seond)

KE = kinetic energy of golf ball (joules, calculated from mv2/2, where m is the balls’ mass. The result may be multiplied by 7/5 to include rotational kinetic energy)

hdown = distance center of mass of putter fell during downswing (meters)

GPEdown = gravitational potential energy lost by club during downswing (joules, from mghdown, where m is the mass of the putter and g = 9.8 meters per second squared)

hup = distance center of mass of putter rose after striking the ball (meters)

GPEup = gravitational potential energy gained back by club during upswing (joules, from mghup)

KE/GPEdown = fraction of putter’s initial gravitational potential energy which was converted to kinetic energy of ball

(KE+GPEup)/ GPEdown = fraction of original energy remaining in mechanical form. The rest was presumably dissipated as heat, sound. etc.        

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Ideas for Analyzing Data

         On average, what fraction of the original gravitational potential energy lost during the downswing was converted into kinetic energy of the ball? How much work was done on the ball?

         On average, what fraction of the original gravitational potential energy lost during the downswing remained as kinetic energy of the ball and gravitational potential energy of the club (when it reached its highest point after contact)? What happened to the rest?

         How much do the individual trials’ values differ from the averages?

         For how much time, roughly, do you think the putter and ball were in contact? Explain why.

         Using this estimated time of contact, and the average kinetic energy of the ball from your trials, what was the average power applied to the ball by the putter?

         What are some sources of error in our methods, and how could our accuracy be improved?

         If we assume that the ball slowed down some while rolling across the floor, how did this affect our results?

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence shown by your data. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Compare Findings

Review the video and then discuss your results with classmates who did the investigation using the same or a similar system or with those who did the investigation using a different system. Or do research on the Internet or talk with an expert. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it change what you thought you knew?

         The claim made by the expert in the video is….

         I support (or refute) the expert’s claim because in my investigation….

         When thinking about the expert’s claims, I am confused as to why….

         Another investigation I would like to explore is….

 

 

(13)

 


 

Copy Master: Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations

 

Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial question

Question had a yes/no answer, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Question was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Question clearly stated, researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question.

While the design supported the initial question, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, control of variables) was not sufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question.

Variables

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that results in data that can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Observations and data

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, not recorded, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial question.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflections were limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial question.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

(14)

 

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