SCIENCE OF GOLF: Potential and Kinetic Energy - STEM Lesson Plan (Grades 4-12) Print

Objective:

Students identify and solve problems related to potential and kinetic energy in golf by working through an engineering design process. Students build on what they know to synthesize science, technology, engineering design, and math concepts related to potential and kinetic energy in golf and apply their understanding to other curricular areas.


Introduction Notes:

Science OF GOLF: Potential and Kinetic Energy

STEM Lesson Plan / Adaptable for Grades 4–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the USGA and Chevron.

 

 

Background and Planning Information............................................................ 2

About the Video............................................................................................................................ 2

Video Timeline .............................................................................................................................. 2

Language Support ......................................................................................................................... 2

Next Generation Science Standards.............................................................................................. 19

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy................................................. 19

 

Promote STEM with Video............................................................................. 2

Connect to Science......................................................................................................................... 2

Connect to Technology................................................................................................................... 4

Connect to Engineering.................................................................................................................. 5

Connect to Math............................................................................................................................ 5

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry........................................................ 6

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................... 6

Identify Problems.......................................................................................................................... 7

Investigate Design Problems.......................................................................................................... 7

                Possible Materials.............................................................................................................. 7

                Open Choice Approach....................................................................................................... 8

                Focused Approach............................................................................................................. 9

                Media Research Option.................................................................................................... 11

                                Related Internet Resources.................................................................................. 11

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence................................................................................................. 12

Present and Compare Findings..................................................................................................... 12

Reflect and Redesign.................................................................................................................... 13

Inquiry Assessment...................................................................................................................... 13

 

Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan...................................................... 13

Integrate Video in Instruction....................................................................................................... 13

                Use Visuals....................................................................................................................... 13

                Homework....................................................................................................................... 13

                Using the 5E Approach...................................................................................................... 13

Connect to Physical Education....................................................................................................... 13

Connect to Other Sports............................................................................................................... 13

Use Video as a Writing Prompt...................................................................................................... 13

 

Copy Masters .............................................................................................. 15

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students.................................................... 15

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students........................................................... 16

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations................................................................................ 18

 

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 About the Video

One thing that makes golf different from most other sports is that the golf ball is hit while it is at rest. Science of Golf (SOG): Potential and Kinetic Energy features Paula Creamer, one of the top golfers on the LPGA tour, with four top five finishes in 2013, and the 2010 U.S. Women's Open Champion. Creamer has a technique that allows her to get more energy into her swing. To understand how golfers put the ball right where they want to, you have to understand potential and kinetic energy. Steve Quintavalla and Jim Hubbell, research engineers at the United States Golf Association (USGA), explain the science behind the game.

 

 Video Timeline

0:00     0:15     Series opening

0:16     1:06     Introducing Paula Creamer who is able to get more energy into her golf swing

1:07     1:21     Steve Quintavalla and why energy is needed in the golf swing

1.22     1:29     Graphic: Potential energy

1:30     1:41     Graphic: Types of potential energy

1:42     1:53     Steve Quintavalla and what is needed to make something move

1:54     2:07     Graphic: Kinetic energy

2:08     2:40     Energy in Paula Creamer’s swing – video and graphic

2:41     2:50     Steve Quintavalla on where the energy comes from in a golf swing

2:51     3:09     Jim Hubbell on energy transfer in the golf swing

3:10     3:28     Graphic: Energy transfer when the golf ball is hit.

3:29     3:38     Jim Hubbell explains that energy is lost….

3:39     3:58     Graphic: Potential, kinetic, potential energies in the flight of the golf ball

3:59     4:23     Graphic: STEM principles behind golf

4:24     4:33     Summary

4:34     4:49     Closing credits

 

 Language Support: To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the right side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Standards Connections for NGSS and Common Core ELA

Connected standards are listed in full on the last page of this document.

 

 

 Connect to Science

Science concepts described in this video include energy, potential and kinetic energy, transfer of energy and loss of energy. Understanding potential and kinetic energy is key to applying what golf legend Johnny Miller calls a “heavy hit” to the back of the golf ball. It is also key in

 

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understanding what happens to the golf ball as it is smashed by the golf club and sent flying through the air. Elementary school students begin to examine pushes and pulls at a very early age. Fourth grade students study the conversion of energy from one form to another. Middle school students understand many ideas about energy including that the interactions of objects can be explained and predicted. They know that objects that are moving have kinetic energy and that objects may contain potential energy, depending on their position. High school students actually design, build, and refine devices that can convert one form of energy into another form of energy. Sources say that Tiger Woods started imitating his father’s golf swing when he was six months old. Do you think potential and kinetic energy were on his mind?

Take Action with Students

         Students should be familiar with potential and kinetic energy. Have them drop golf balls from the same height to the classroom floor to observe the two forms of energy in action. They could sketch and write in their science notebooks explanations of what they observed at different points as the ball fell.

         Students might drop golf balls from different heights to the classroom floor and generalize about the force of a hit on a golf ball. They should think about the fact that golfers do not always hit the golf ball as hard as they can.

         Student could repeat the above actions and compare the bounce of a golf ball with that of other types of balls. Perhaps they could compare/contrast the composition and bounce of the different balls.

         Using a pool noodle students could model the golf swing and explain/discuss the transfer of energy throughout the swing. The motions could be filmed with a smartphone for review. They could extend this activity by identifying which muscles are involved in each stage of the swing.

         Younger students could roll golf balls (or marbles) down inclined planes and then explain what they learned about potential and kinetic energy. They could start with what they noticed about the motion and where it was greatest. They should be encouraged to explain why they thought what they did. Used golf balls from golf courses and sports resale shops are relatively inexpensive and work well for experimental usages.

         Older students could examine potential and kinetic energy using a grassy inclined plane. They could do so by making comparisons between golf balls and other kinds of balls. Students should be encouraged to diagram what they are going to do in order to make predictions. They could also give explanations of what they observed using math.

 

 

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 Connect to Technology

The video doesn’t really highlight technology improvements that deal with potential and kinetic energy. Some might consider the high-energy bars that golfers consume between holes or as they walk down the fairway as a big increase in available chemical energy. There have been plenty of real technology innovations that should provide for interesting discussions.

 

Take Action with Students

         Show those portions of the companion video SOG: Evolution of the Golf Club that use high-speed photography to show results in “slow motion,” such as 3:24–3:29, 3:44–3:55, and 4:26–4:44. Have students discuss how this technology helps researchers design clubs, and golfers to improve their swings.

         Have student watch this video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rk5h1hgZ2pM and engage students in discussing how technology has in fact improved the transfer of energy in golf.

         Have students watch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z9o_Ps33snM and focus on the benefits cited. Have students discuss how each benefit might impact the transfer of energy in the golf swing.

         Prior to 2000, wedges angled beyond 56˚ were more the exception than the rule. Now it is possible to purchase wedges angled at 58˚, 60˚, or even 64˚. Have students discuss how transferring energy using such a lofted club might impact the game of golf.

 

 Connect to Engineering

The engineering design process involves many aspects of science and technology, plus the human ingenuity and creativity needed to bring all these facets together to produce ever-better golf clubs. The history of the golf club is a good illustration of how engineering consists not only of creating a product, but continuing to improve it as new technological and mathematical tools become available. Also, special features of modern golf clubs, such as face inserts for the driver, have greatly impacted the transfer of energy to the golf ball.

 

Take Action with Students

         Students might do research (which could include watching vendor videos that are available on YouTube) that will let them compare and contrast various modern drivers along with the supporting research on how a given design is expected to improve distance or accuracy of the drive. Students could go on to design their own oddly-shaped drivers that conform to USGA standards as described in Appendix II of the Rules of Golf, and hold a class competition to determine the best design. Download the USGA standards at: http://www.usga.org/Rule-Books/Rules-of-Golf/Appendix-II/

         A golf club vender's site (http://www.mizunousa.com/golf/products/mizuno-jpx-ez-driver#.U0QIXa1dVxU ) proclaims that their latest driver’s "HOT METAL Face Design: Multi-Thickness CORTECH for high COR area and max distance from everywhere. " Have students discuss what this marketing message means and how and why Mizuno's engineers did what they did. The diagram found at the website offers several other ideas that young engineers might find worthwhile to discuss.

 

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 Connect to Math

How many variables are involved in calculating how far a golf ball will travel once it is hit? Ball speed? Air temperature? Wind speed and direction? Air density? Launch angle? Rate of spin? Where the ball was hit on the clubface? Was there any grass between the ball and the clubface? Was there any mud on the ball? Enough questions! You might be surprised to learn that even expensive golf simulators and launch monitors cannot precisely do distance calculations. They make their guesstimates based on averages and various assumptions. There is a formula that would let students do these calculations. It doesn’t take all of the variables mentioned above into account but it does remove all of them that have to do with air. Can your students imagine hitting a golf ball in a vacuum? You might ask your students why this might be a good approximation. Students might also discuss the effects of the variables mentioned in the above questions.

d = (vcosθ)t

 

In this formula, v = initial velocity, θ = launch angle, and t = time. It can be visualized as follows.

Take Action with Students

         Student can use the formula above and the data in the table to determine the velocity at which each club would have to be hit to impart to the ballto achieve the distance required. Have them consider that the average golf ball stays in the air for about 6 seconds. Also, it might be interesting for students to explain how it is that having all twelve 12clubs swung by the same person produces such different initial velocities. Prior to doing the calculations students might make a prediction about any trend they might find concerning the velocity with which each club is hit.

Club

Launch Angle (in degrees)

Distance (yards)

Driver

9.0

289

3-Wood

14.4

243

5-Wood

19.9

230

Hybrid

21

225

3-Iron

22

212

4-Iron

23.9

203

 

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5-Iron

27

194

6-Iron

30.5

183

7-Iron

34.3

172

8-Iron

38.3

160

9-Iron

42.4

148

PW

47.1

136

         How much did it cost to play that course on the moon? Use http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_jYOubJmfM to intrigue students. Then have them research the costs involved in developing the special club Alan Shepard used to hit the golf ball on the moon and in transporting it there.

 

 

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 16.

 

 Explore Understanding

Guide a discussion to find out what students know about potential and kinetic energy. Use resources such as the following:

         http://science.howstuffworks.com/crossbow2.htm

         http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2011/12/02/dark-energy-accelerated-expans/

          http://99daveva31893.blogspot.com/2013/05/potential-and-kinetic-energy.html

         http://www.atecaircraft.eu/en/news/atec-321-faeta-ul-for-gliders-towing/

         http://www.theguardian.com/environment/blog/2013/jul/16/world-bank-dams-africa )

 

After breaking the ice on the topic you might move groups of students to the four corners of the room. Two corners will discuss potential energy (or an aspect of potential energy that you’ve assigned to each corner) to activate their background knowledge. The other two corners will discuss kinetic energy (or an aspect of kinetic energy that you’ve assigned) to activate their background knowledge. Four corners can be highly engaging for students and it only requires 5 to 10 minutes. Use the following or similar prompts to start students talking.

         One experience I have had with kinetic or potential energy is….

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         The video describes...

         Golfers are able to hit the ball so far because....

         I experience potential and kinetic energy every day when…

         One way I think I could change a golf club or golf ball to make the design better is….

         Transfer of potential and kinetic energy in golf is similar to….

         Potential and kinetic energy can be explained in writing….

         Things that affect potential and kinetic energy and what they do include….

         Sometimes, potential and kinetic energy make golf more difficult, such as when….

         Sometimes, potential and kinetic energy are necessary, such as when....

         The engineer/scientist can help golfers by….

         Some factors controlling potential and kinetic energy are….

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Show SOG: Potential and Kinetic Energy and encourage students to take notes while they watch about how potential and kinetic energy affect the game of golf and any recommendations of experts. Continue the discussion of how a design team might improve a golf club or golf ball using the following or similar prompts:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         We learned from the video that….

         Something about what was done in the video is….

         One problem the design team was dealing with was….

         The experts in the video explained that….

         Variables influencing the potential solutions include….

         Our efforts might be limited by.…

         Engineering has improved the transfer of energy in golf by….

 

 Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions they have about improving the transfer of energy in golf. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering problem that is researchable and/or testable. Bring groups together to discuss/share their problems. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Some example questions that reflect engineering design problems are:

         What factors can be changed that might improve the transfer of energy in golf?

         How do the rules of golf limit changes that can be made to more efficiently transfer energy to the golf ball?

         What could be done to improve the transfer of energy in golf?

         How does the angle of the golf club’s face impact the transfer of energy?

         What materials could we use to improve performance?

         What would the ideal transfer of energy in the golf swing look like?

         Which has a greater effect? Improving the golf club/golf ball or improving the golfer’s performance?

         How can a design team predict how their improvements will make changes in the real world?

         What is the quickest way to improve the transfer of energy in golf?

         Is it possible that the fastest way to improve transfer of energy in the golf swing would be to work with the golfer instead of the technology?

 

 Investigate Design Problems

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

 Possible Materials:Allow time for students to examine and manipulate available materials, or identify additional materials as needed. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation.

         To explore potential and kinetic energy using a golf ball: Students might use golf balls, other kinds of balls, or items that might serve as the core of a golf ball (whiffle balls, foam balls, marbles, super balls), material that students can wrap around their cores (rubber

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bands, spray foam, string, rubber cement and silly string) and material to form the cover of the ball (various kinds of tape, plastic wrap, cloth, an inner tube, contact paper, liquid rubber or latex, and glue).

         To explore potential and kinetic energy using a student-designed golf club face: Students might use wooden blocks (body of golf club); different thin materials that can be layered to create a composite clubface, such as rubber bands or masking tape; large wooden dowels, round broom sticks, or meter sticks (golf club shaft); golf balls (identical brand and model); bag ties; smaller blocks of wood, metal washers, or other weights; and equal sized clumps of clay.

Measuring tools such as stopwatches, magnifying lenses, electronic balances, spring scales, smart phone video cameras, graduated cylinders, protractors, meter sticks, or measuring tape and calculators might also be useful in the design process.

 

Safety Considerations: You and your students should wear cover goggles. Review safe use of tools and measurement devices as needed. Augment your own safety procedures with NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

 Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 15)

1.      Give students time to discuss their various questions. With SOG: Potential and Kinetic Energy as a base, groups might agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might evaluate different problems and solutions. Some ideas include designing a golf ball that will more efficiently transfer energy when it bounces or is hit (if students are unfamiliar with the structure of a golf ball, show http://petapixel.com/2013/07/18/cross-section-photos-of-golf-balls-reveal-the-diverse-beauty-within/); have students research and explain how golf balls have changed historically so as to better transfer energy; or work with various materials to see what should be used in the face of a golf club to most efficiently transfer energy to the golf ball. Students could also design a golf club that would launch a golf ball at an angle that would cause the ball to travel the greatest distance. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

         The design problem we are solving is….

         Materials we could use to implement our design are….

         The science concepts involved in our design include…

         The math concepts involved in our design include….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Barriers to success that we anticipate are…

         Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

2.      Lead discussionsto establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions might be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money.

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are_____and we will determine them by....

         Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

         Innovative design features we will include are….

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3.      Have students determine the dependent variable they will use to evaluate their design. Check the students' understanding of each variable, such as how high a ball bounces, how long a ball bounces, the distance a ball travels, the force with which a ball hits a target or the amount of time that a ball stays in the air. To do this, have students determine other variables associated with the problem they are trying to solve. Then have them determine what data/evidence they need to collect to evaluate the success of their design.

4.      Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is....

         We will change the center of our golf ball to....

         We will test our prototype model golf ball by….

         We will make design decisions, or changes to the independent variable, such as _____ to observe what happens to the dependent variable.

         The data we will collect are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

5.      Allow students to spend some time working with the materials they have decided to use to implement their design. As students work with the materials, suggest that they reexamine their problem(s) and write down the procedures they intend to follow and how they will test their design and collect the data necessary to revise their design. Collecting evidence to promote future iterations and innovations is a critical step in the engineering design cycle. Guide students with prompts such as the following.

         Information we need to understand before designing a golf ball includes….

         We will construct our prototype or model by….

         While constructing our prototype or model we will….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

         Thinking about future innovation we will….

         We will represent our data by….

         Mathematical models we can use in our investigation include…

6.      Be sure to work with students to develop safe procedures that keep the variables not being tested constant, allowing them to make accurate measurements.

7.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution, as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to optimize their solutions and what they have learned. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

 

 Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 16–17)

The following exemplifies one way students might design solutions to potential and kinetic energy design problems. The USGA’s Steve Quintavalla states that a golfer’s swing is the most critical part of getting energy into the golf ball. That might be a good point from which to give some thought to what might be designed. Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will build and test their designs, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures

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before they start any investigation. You might include constraints for issues of safety, time, or materials.

It would be interesting to ask the average golfer if they believed the Quintavalla assertion above. A point that flies in the face of it is the vast number golf ball brands that are available. The same could be said for the number of different clubface designs. Players look for every advantage they can see from both clubs and balls. Let’s leave advertisements for both items out of it! If you’re not a golfer, you may want to take a look at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sK3LWGQMjSY to get an idea of where this activity is headed. Students might benefit from the video as well. Or, if you are a golfer you might show them different golf clubs. (A variety of clubs are often available at sport equipment resale stores and local thrift shops.) A design task students might examine would be building a clubface that would be efficient at transferring energy from the club to the golf ball. The face of a blade-type club head might be made of layers from front to back. A perimeter-weighted club might have a framework to which the face is attached. Students could also examine the role that a club’s grip or shaft play in the transfer of energy.

 

1.      Give students time to discuss their selected problem(s). Allow time for groups to examine all of the materials available to them. Guide whole-class or small-group discussions to identify the problem being solved and then to identify criteria and constraints against which solutions will be developed. For example, their design for the face of a golf club could be a rectangle of layered materials onto which a golf ball could be dropped. It might also look like the head of a golf club that could be swung (as a suspended pendulum perhaps). Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

         We will make a model that....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design includes….

2.      Encourage students to think about how they can design and construct an efficient face for a golf club considering variables such as density, mass, elastic potential energy, and elastic or inelastic collisions. Guide the class to establish criteria and constraints for the solution to the problem. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time and money. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is....

         The golf clubface that we’ve designed will be able to….

         We can build our model using….

         In the video, what we learned about potential and kinetic energy….

         Constraints we must deal with include….

         Our model clubface will be able to....

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         One thing we will need to do with the face of our golf club is....

         We’re not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

         We think ourchanges will increase the efficiency of energy transferto the ball because....

         Our design is similar/dissimilar to an actual golf club because….

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are….

3.      Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection strategy prior to designing their clubface. Provide students with the following prompts to guide how they will collect evidence for evaluating their design:

         We will test our design by….

         We will change the clubface design in the following ways to see the relationship to the dependent variable….

         The data (dependent variable) we will collect are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         We will use evidence such as _____ to determine the need for additional changes such as…

4.      Students plan and implement their design from the materials at hand. Students might design and build a clubface by layering material that they determine will best transfer energy back to a ball that is dropped onto it. The head and face of their golf club might also be designed from a single piece, or a combination of other materials that can be swung when attached to an accepted shaft. Encourage multiple trials of dropping or swinging the club head at the end of an accepted shaft. The ball, height of the drop and the length of the swing should remain constant.

5.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions.

 

 Media Research Option

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources. Students might begin by researching why they are doing this media investigation. They might compare why some of the designs they learn about are better than others. Students should brainstorm to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet search engines that might result in resources that will help them answer the question. Review how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and how to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Words and phrases associated with our question are….

         The reliability of our sources was established by….

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         The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….

         Our research might feed into an engineering design solution such as….

         To conduct a safe investigation on the Internet, we will….

 

 Related Internet Resources

         Potential and Kinetic Energy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vl4g7T5gw1M ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZ4FFWvZtyo

         Potential and Kinetic Energy in Golf: www.golf-foundation.org/core/core_picker/download.asp?id ; https://services.nwsource.com/nie/times/pdfs/STEM%20Golf%20Tab%202013.pdf

         The Golf Swing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvTWgui4Tjo ; http://www.wikihow.com/Swing-a-Golf-Club

         Potential and Kinetic Energy in Sports: http://2n2scienceblog.wordpress.com/category/energy-sports/page/3/

 

 Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their design investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bythe height to which our ball bounced when dropped from one meter (as determined by the average of the first three bounces), I claim that the materials I chose for core, wrapping material, and ball cover worked better than those selected by other design teams because over multiple trials the ball bounced at least 40 centimeters higher than the ball of any other team.

 

 Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were not similar to those discussed in the video in that when the golf club hit and compressed our model golf ball, the ball failed to snap back and wasn’t pushed forward with as much kinetic energy as I had hoped. The golf balls designed by other students traveled much further when hit with the same force.

 

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 Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         I now understand or could teach others….

 

 Inquiry AssessmentSee the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 19.

 

 

 

  Integrate Video in Instruction

         Use Visuals:Show SOG: Potential and Kinetic Energy. Then have students create a diagram that labels kinetic and potential energy present from the time a golf ball is hit by a driver until it comes to rest far down the fairway. Or you might give students this quote from 2012 Open champion Ernie Els, "You'll get better results–and often more distance–if you swing at 80 percent effort." Have students explain why they think that might be so and analyze what it implies about energy transfer.

         Homework: Students can draw a diagram of a roller coaster and come up with a strategy to label/show what happens to potential and kinetic energy as the car makes it way around the circuit.

 

 Using the 5E Approach?

If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:

         Explore: Use the Design Investigations section of Facilitate Inquiry to support your lessons on potential and kinetic energy. Main concepts could include how energy transfers are found in just about every movement we make. Students could do research and make observations that can later be shared.

         Elaborate: Show students SOG: Potential and Kinetic Energy, focusing on the section from 1:30–1:51 that discusses the different types of potential energy. Divide class into manageable groups. Each group will go to separate section of the classroom to make flashcards. The front of each card should list or show a situation from everyday life that involves potential energy. The back of the card identifies the form of potential energy that is presented on the front of the card. Some situations may have more than one form of potential energy present. Groups can take turns presenting their efforts and points might be awarded to make it more interesting.

 

 Connect to … Physical Education

Some elementary schools are teaching golf to kindergarteners! Golf is part of many middle

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school and high school physical education curricula. Partner with a physical education colleague. You could have a golf professional or advanced player talk with your students. Have students write task cards that illustrate the movements that make up the golf swing and how energy is transferred through each movement. Students should explain the why of each part of the swing and how it transfers energy efficiently.

 

 Connect to … Other Sports

A graphic in the video showed where the energy came from in the golf club and how it transfers energy to the golf ball in a very efficient manner. Pick two other sports and draw diagrams that show how potential and kinetic energy come into play and what the player does to transfer energy efficiently.

 

 Use Video as a Writing Prompt

Explain to students that they will use information from SOG: Potential and Kinetic Energy to explain how potential and kinetic energy come into play when making golf swings. Tell them they will write to describe playing the perfect golf hole. You might display the hole at 0:51, which is a 164 yard par 3 (one tee-shot, two putts) or another one such as the hole in the foreground of this photo posted by Penn State News at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pennstatelive/4951046386. Students’ writing should include potential and kinetic energy and the role that energy plays in their shots. They might also bring in some of the other variables that impact the game of golf, such as ball speed, temperature, wind speed and direction, air density, launch angle, rate of spin, or where the ball was hit on the clubface.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Potential and Kinetic Energy

Use this as a guide to design and test your solution according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

Our class discussion and the video make me think about problems such as….

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will make and test your solution. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

         The materials we will use include….

         Our criteria for success are….

         Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

         The constraints within which we will work are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         In redesigning innovations we incorporated included….

         I now understand or could teach others….

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Potential and Kinetic Energy

Use this as a guide to design and test a clubface according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

Why is potential and kinetic an important consideration in the design of golf clubs and the overall game of golf?

 

Identify Problems

How can we design a golf ball that can more efficiently transfer energy?

How can we design a clubface that can more efficiently transfer energy?

Do there need to be constraints when considering how golf clubs and balls transfer energy?

What factors should we consider changing?

How can we be certain that the model we design will be an accurate model of a real golf club?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group how you might make a golf clubface from the materials available. Use these prompts to help you.

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include…

         We will limit/increase the transfer of energy by….

         We think these changes willincrease the transfer of energybecause....

         We will represent our data in the following way(s)….

         We will compare the data from each trial by….

         We will analyze the overall data by….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your observations and data in tables such as the one below. In the Design Changes/Trial # column describe the changes you made to your golf clubface that were intended to increase the height the golf ball bounces.

 

Design Iteration

Describe Changes/Trial #

Height

1

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

Trial 3

 

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Average

 

2

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         What changes made the greatest impact on how high the ball bounced?

         Describe how the changes you made to your clubface design impacted how high the ball bounced.

         Describe how your data helped you make decisions to change your clubface design.

         What implication does your data have for the game of golf?

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         One thing I understand or could teach others….

 

 

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Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial problem

Problem had too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was insufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Data and Analysis (based on iterations)

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

 

 

 

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Science OF GOLF: Potential and Kinetic Energy

Standards Connections

 

Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

Energy

MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.

MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.

 

Engineering

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

HS-ETS1-1.Analyze a major global challengeto specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

 

Science and Engineering Practices: Developing and Using Models

Develop a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.

 

 Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

 

 

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