SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF THE 2014 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES: Olympic Movement and Robotic Design - Inquiry Guide (Grades 4-12) Print

Objective:

Students will investigate questions and engineering design problems about robotic programming and learning.


Introduction Notes:

Science AND ENGINEERING OF THE 2014 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES

Olympic Movement & Robotic Design

 

INQUIRY GUIDE for HANDS-ON INVESTIGATIONS

Middle School Focus / Adaptable for Grades 4–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the National Science Foundation.

 

Background and Planning Information............................................................................................ 2

About the Video............................................................................................................................ 2

Video Timeline .............................................................................................................................. 2

Next Generation Science Standards................................................................................................ 2

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy................................................... 3

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry.............................................................................................................. 3

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................... 3

Ask Beginning Questions................................................................................................................ 3

Design Investigations..................................................................................................................... 4

                Possible Materials.............................................................................................................. 4

                Open Choice Approach....................................................................................................... 4

                Focused Approach............................................................................................................. 5

                Adapt for High School......................................................................................................... 6

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence................................................................................................... 6

Present and Compare Findings....................................................................................................... 6

Reflect on Learning........................................................................................................................ 7

Inquiry Assessment........................................................................................................................ 7

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry......................................................................................... 8

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................... 8

Identify Problems.......................................................................................................................... 8

Design Investigations..................................................................................................................... 9

                Possible Materials.............................................................................................................. 9

                Open Choice Approach....................................................................................................... 9

                Focused Approach............................................................................................................ 10

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence................................................................................................. 11

Present and Compare Findings..................................................................................................... 12

Reflect and Redesign.................................................................................................................... 12

Inquiry Assessment...................................................................................................................... 12

 

Copy Masters .............................................................................................................................. 13

Open Choice SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students.......................................................................... 12

Focused SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students................................................................................ 14

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students.................................................... 16

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students........................................................... 17

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations................................................................................ 19

 

 

 

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Background and Planning

 

About the Video

Olympic Movement & Robotic Design discusses precision and the practice needed to achieve it in Olympic athletics and how a type of robotic flyer called a quadrocopter can mimic Olympic athletic tasks. The quadrocopter was developed through a robotics program led by robotics engineer, Dr. Raffaello D’Andrea. Dr. D’Andrea and his team identify a task for the robot and then program it with algorithms that use feedback from the quadrocopter’s control system to enable the robot to not only perform the task, but also improve upon its performance each time it performs the task. In this way, it is much like Olympic athletes, such as skier Ted Ligety, hockey player Julie Chu, and figure skaters Charlie White and Meryl Davis, who learn from their mistakes and improve their performance with practice.

 

Video Timeline

0:00     0:14     Series opening

0:15     0:36     Introducing Ligety, Chu, and Davis and White

0:37     0:53     Pushing the boundaries of robotic abilities

0:54     1:35     Introducing D’Andrea

1:36     1:52     The quadrocopter’s innovative ability to learn from practice

1:53     2:54     How the quadrocopter learns from practice

2:55     3:27     Ball bouncing demonstration

3:28     4:09     Comparing ice dancing pairs with pairs of quads

4:10     4:31     Practice is important in both athletics and robotics

4:32     4:52     Summary

4:53     5:07     Closing credits

 

Language Support: To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

Forces and Interactions

MS-PS2-1. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

 

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

MS-LS1-8. Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain or immediate behavior or storage as memories.

 

Engineering

MS-ETS1-1.Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

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MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3.Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

 

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy –

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

 

 

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 13.

 

Explore Understanding

Elicit from volunteers various activities they engage in, such as dancing, playing a musical instrument, skateboarding, or golf, for which they practice to increase skills over time. Encourage students to share details about their experiences, such as when they started, how much time they spend on it, what they do to improve, and so on.

 

Show Olympic Movement & Robotic Design and encourage students to write down questions or take notes while they watch, focusing on the ability of the quadrocopter to follow directions to perform, and then practice, in order to perfect a task. Continue the discussion of students’ own experiences with learning and practice. What abilities do they have that first required following instruction, and then practice, to be able to perfect it? How do their own learning processes occur?Compare and contrast their own experiences to those of Olympic athletes and quadrocopters. Use the following prompts to spark their thinking:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         The Olympic athletes are able to perform their tasks by ….

         The quadrocopters are able to perform their tasks by….

         Some similarities between the learning abilities of the quadrocopters and the Olympic athletes are….

         Some differences between the learning abilities of the quadrocopters and the Olympic athletes are….

         The role of the engineer in quadrocopter flight is….

         When I learn to perform a new task I….

         When I practice to get better at a new task I….

 

 

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Ask Beginning Questions

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these questions…. Then, ask groups to list questions they have about robotic design or programming and the way the robots are able to move and learn like an Olympic athlete. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to be researchable and/or testable. The following are some examples:

         How does time spent in practice affect task performance?

         How does observing improvement in machine task performance help to improve human task performance?

         How does programming result in successful task completion?

         How does the design of an object affect the tasks it can perform?

         How does complexity of a task relate to the amount of practice needed to perfect it?

 

Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation. In this inquiry, students might use tape, meter sticks, other straight sticks to map a course to travel, sidewalk chalk, paper plates, string, markers, scissors, and stopwatches. Make sure students understand how to use these tools and measurement devices safely.

 

Safety Considerations: To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 13)

1.      Groups might come together to agree on one question for which they will explore the answer, or each group might explore something different. Some ideas include practicing a task and measuring how long a person practices until the task is successfully performed; attempting successively more complex tasks and recording the time it takes to get proficient along the spectrum from simple to complex tasks; analyzing the data for the relationship between task complexity and amount of practice to perfection; or how a simple machine performing a task compares to a person performing the same task; testing whether shorter, more frequent practice sessions are better than fewer, more sustained sessions.

2.      Give students free rein in determining how they will explore their chosen question, such as one that pertains to perfecting a complex task. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

         The materials we will use are….

         We will measure the efficiency of our task performance by….

         We will repeat our test _____ times with different participants to determine an average rate of improvement.

         The kinds of evidence we need in order to support our claim include….

3.      Students should brainstorm to form a plan they would have to follow in order to answer the

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question, which might include researching background information. Work with students to

develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         The variable we will test is….

         The variables we will control are….

         The steps we will follow are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

4.      To explore the factors related to robot task performance and the effect of practice, students might conduct research to find out what programmers do and how programs enable the robots to learn. Students might also create a series of If… then… statements that describe the robots actions. Students might also model robotic actions according to a program (list of steps) they’ve written that demonstrates how learning occurs.

 

Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 14–15)

The following exemplifies how students might investigate how the complexity of a task is related to the amount of practice it takes to perform it as near perfectly as possible. The task could vary greatly, but they might want to mimic Olympic and robotic movements by navigating a programmed path under the direction of another student; perform a routine, such as a figure skater’s complex routine; or toss a ball back and forth on a paper plate, simulating hockey players. They might do something as simple as the release and catch of a meter stick in one hand to measure reaction time. Give students leeway in determining how they will explore their chosen question, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation.

1.      Ask students questions such as the following to spark their thinking:

         What kinds of evidence can you collect that will be appropriate for supporting your claim(s)?

         How do the athletes in the video get so good at what they do?

         How do the quadrocopters learn to perform a task to perfection?

         What inputs do athletes and robots have that allow them to improve?

         What kinds of tasks demonstrate the effect of practice?

         What kinds of tasks take a lot of practice? Which require relatively little practice?

         What was the role of the engineer with respect to the quadrocopter's perfection of a task?

         What is the role of the coach with respect to the athlete in perfecting a task?

2.      Students can create their own tasks to complete, with the constraint that it should be a task that can increase in complexity. Examples include series of body movements to be completed in a sequence (task complexity increases as the number of moves increases), a memory game such as Simon (some can be found online: http://www.learninggamesforkids.com/memory_games.html), or a precision task such as throwing a ball through smaller and smaller hoops. To test the effect of practice on successful task completion, students should ensure that their experiment is controlled by measuring a person’s progress against him- or herself. Students can measure their own

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progress at each task by either measuring the amount of time or the number of attempts it takes to perfect the task. Students should start with a simple task and measure how long or how many attempts it takes to perfect it, then move to more and more complex tasks. Ensure that students brainstorm a list of variables that are involved in their proposed experiments and determine which can be controlled and which cannot. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

         The variable we will test is….

         The responding variable will be….

         The variables we will control, or keep the same, are….

         We will design our task so that it….

         We will measure our task proficiency by….

         The variables which cannot be controlled include…

         We will repeat our test _____ times and determine an average time or number of trials it takes to become proficient at our task.

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

3.      Students might deepen their understanding by recording after each trial what they learned about completing their task more proficiently that they included in their next attempt. In this way they are recognizing the feedback mechanisms by which they improve during practice, much like the robots or the athletes learn. Students might also critique one another in their task completion, thereby creating another feedback loop that is external to the performer. This loop fulfills the role of a coach or the cameras the quadrocopters use to learn.

 

Adapt for High School Students

High school students can take the lesson a step further to study the programming that it might take to accomplish a task. Use the website below to complete an hour of coding instruction and then use that understanding to code a partner participant to perform a task or series of successively more complex tasks. Students should design their code as one piece and then have their partner follow the code to perform a task.

 

http://code.org/

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations as evidence to support their claims. As needed, suggest ways they might organize their data using tables or graphs. Students should analyze their data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence their data shows. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because….

 

A sample claim comparing the amount of time spent practicing to perfect a task to task complexity:

As evidenced byrepeated trials at tasks of various complexity, I claim there is a positive relationship between practice needed to perfect a task and task complexity because the more complex a task was, the more practice it required to complete the task without a mistake.

 

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Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, the information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as the following:

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My ideas are similar to the demonstration in the video because the quadrocopters were less successful in completing a task the first time they attempted it, just as we were less successful at completing tasks the first time we attempted them.

 

Reflect on Learning

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         I claim my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence…

         My ideas changed in the following ways…

         I wish I had been able to spend more time on….

         Another investigation I would like to try is….

         Now I understand…

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 19.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 16.

 

Explore Understanding

 

  

Show Olympic Movement & Robotic Design and encourage students to take notes while they watch. Continue the discussion of flowcharts and decision trees and their relationship to learning. Guide students to think about ways robots can be programmed to perform a task using the following or similar prompts:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         We think that robots are able to perform tasks by….

         Some ways that quadrocopters can mimic Olympic athletes are….

         The engineers in the video program the quadrocopters by….

         Engineers decide how to program the quadrocopter by….

         Quadrocopters perfect their task by….

 

Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions they have about how to model the programming techniques that get a quadrocopter to accomplish a task and learn from its methods to improve its technique. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering problem that is researchable and/or testable. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Some examples are:

         How can a quadrocopter be programmed to learn and complete a task?

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         How can non-verbal programming languages can be used to direct a robot to complete a task successfully?

         How can we model the programming of a robot to complete and learn from the completion of a task?

         What can be gleaned from the execution of a task that would constitute learning?

 

Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials you have available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigations. In this inquiry, students might use cardboard or poster board, bungees or long rubber bands, large and small plastic containers, small plastic or wooden objects, meter sticks, large balls, and stopwatches.

 

Safety Considerations To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 16)

1.      Groups might come together to agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might explore different problems, such as designing a programming language to direct model quadrocopters—perhaps students—to perform a task. Give students free rein in determining how they will engineer their solutions, but insist that they get approval before building and testing. To help students envision their investigations use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is….

         The materials we could use are….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Acceptable evidence for our solution would include.…

2.      Lead whole-class or small-group discussions to establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions will be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials and time.

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are... and we will determine them by….

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

3.      Students should brainstorm to form a plan they would have to follow in order to solve the problem, which might include researching background information. Work with students to develop safe procedures that enable them to collect data. For example, to solve the problem of programming a model to perform a task students might act as parts of the model themselves and design commands to follow to accomplish the task. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         We will construct our prototype or model by….

         We will test our prototype or model by….

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         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

4.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions.

 

Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 17–18)

The following exemplifies one way students might design and test a programming language (and perhaps apply a flowchart or decision tree) to enable several robots such as the quadrocopters to work together to perform a task. Students could themselves model the quadrocopters. Other students could act as programmers. Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will model the quadrocopter and how they will program one another to move, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation.

1.      Allow time for groups to examine all of the materials available to them. Guide whole-class or small-group discussions to identify the problem they are solving and then to identify criteria and constraints within which their solution will be developed. For example, students might identify problems such as moving a ball balanced on four meter sticks through a slalom course; moving an object resting on a cardboard platform suspended from bungees from point A to point B; transporting a marble from point A to point B through PVC pipe without touching the marble directly; or if outside, moving a container of water suspended from large rubber bands from point A to a bucket at point B and dumping it without spilling any water. They could work together on a programming language that allows them to accomplish the task with minimal verbal cues.

2.      Guide the class to establish criteria and constraints for the solution to the problem. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials and time. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is….

         The materials we could use are….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include….

3.      Encourage students to think about how they can perfect their task completion by using prompts such as the following.

         Our programming language consists of….

         Our criteria for our programming language are….

         We think our language will be an effective way to communicate commands, because….

         To accomplish our task our human quadrocopter has to be able to….

         In order to perfect our task we will….

         We will measure our success by….

         We will conduct the investigation safely by….

 

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4.      Students might develop a flowchart (or use a decision tree) to describe their program using symbols such as those in the chart below from www.teachengineering.org or another source they researched.

5.      To create a model that mimics some of the characteristics of the quadrocopter, one student could represent each rotor, around the center that will be a platform or net that each rotor holds up. If there is space and it is safe, the rotors could be blindfolded, so that they can only use their controls (or programming students) to accomplish a task. Help students visualize themselves as the robot using these or similar prompts:

         In our human model, the students in the model represent….

         In our human model, the students giving the commands represent….

         We will give our model the characteristics of the quadrocopter by….

         We will measure the completion of our task _____ times because….

         We will program our human model to move by….

6.      Students could perform the task several times doing exactly as the programmer directs so what needs to be modified can be observed, keeping data for analysis that will inform them on how practice leads to task improvement or ways to improve their program. If all groups have the same task, they might create a competition and measure their success against one another to determine the optimum program.

7.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, elicit from the class the optimal program.

 

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations and

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measurements. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more

claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bythe consistent completion of our task, I claim our modeling language was successful for task completion because we were able to use the commands to perform and perfect our task, just as the quadrocopter was able to do with its own programming language.

 

Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare efficiency of code writing (e.g., least number of commands) or ability to adapt to changing conditions (like changing lengths, weights, or distances) results with other classmates who had the same or a similar task, material they find on the Internet, the information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were similar to those discussed in the video because our task completion followed a similar pattern to that of the engineers and the quadrocopter. Programming was done, but the task initially was unsuccessful. With practice, and better commands, we were able to complete the task efficiently.

 

Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 19.

 

 

 

 

 

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Copy Master: Open Choice SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Olympic Movement & Robotic Design

Use this guide to investigate a question about robotic programming and learning. Write your report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

My class discussion and the video encouraged me to think about these questions….

 

Design Investigations

Choose one question. Brainstorm with your teammates to come up with ways in which you might be able to answer the question. Look up information as needed. Add safety precautions. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.

         The materials we will use are….

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         We will measure the efficiency of our task performance by….

         We will determine an average rate of improvement by….

         The variables we will test and those we will control are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Record Data and Observations

Record your observations. Organize your data in tables or graphs as appropriate.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about your results. How do they fit with what you already knew? How do they change what you thought you knew about the topic?

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         One idea/concept I am still working to understand involves….

 

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COPY MASTER: Focused SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Olympic Movement & Robotic Design

Use this guide to investigate a question about robotic programming and learning. Write your report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

How does the complexity of the task relate to learning?

 

Design Investigations

Brainstorm with your teammates to come up with ways in which you might be able to answer the question. Decide on one idea and write a procedure that will allow you to safely explore the question. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.

         The variable we will test is….

         The responding variable will be….

         The variables we will control, or keep the same, are….

         We will design our task so that it….

         We will measure our task proficiency by….

         We will repeat our test _____ times and determine an average time or number of trials it takes to become proficient at our task.

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Record Data and Observations

Organize your observations and data in tables or graphs as appropriate. Use the table below as an example.

 

Task and Time

Description of the task to be completed:

 

Student performing task

Time to complete task (seconds)

 

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Average

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Ideas for Analyzing Data

         How did the time for each person change with successive trials?

         What trend or pattern is shown by most or all of the participants?

         What does the average time show about the difficulty of the task?

         How did each person use the results of each trial to change what they did in the next trial?

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it change what you thought you knew?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         One concept I still do not understand involves….

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         Something that surprised me the most was….

         A challenge that I (we) had to overcome was….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copy Master: Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Olympic Movement & Robotic Design

Use this as a guide to develop commands to program a robot to do a task. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will make and test your model. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

  • We are designing a solution that will….

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence for our solution would include….

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         We will construct our prototype or model by….

         We will test our prototype or model by….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

(16)


 

COPY MASTER: Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Olympic Movement & Robotic Design

Use this guide to model and test quadrocopter programming using humans to represent the moving parts. Record your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

How can a quadrocopter be programmed to learn and complete a task?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group how you might create a low-verbal language-based or symbol-based programming language to command a model to perform a task. Use these prompts to help you.

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include…

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Our programming language uses….

         Our criteria for our programming language are….

         We think our language will be an effective way to communicate commands, because….

         To accomplish our task our human quadrocopter has to be able to….

         In order to perfect our task we will….

         We will measure our success by….

         We will model the investigation safely by….

 

 

(17)

Time to Complete Tasks and Observations

Trial

Time to task completion

Results of Program

Changes to Programming

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         Which trial was most successful in task completion and how does this relate to practice?

         What revisions did you have to make to your programming language and why? What effect did it have on performance?

         What changes were made (if any) to model design? What effect did those changes have on performance?

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and then make one or more claims based on the evidence you observed.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

(18)

 

Copy Master: Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations

 

Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial question or problem

Question or problem had had a yes/no answer or too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Question or problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Question or problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial question or problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was not sufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Observations and data

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, not recorded, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial question or problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial question or problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

(19)

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