SCIENCE OF GOLF: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples (Grades 7 - 12) Print

Objective:

Students identify and solve problems related to the role of dimples on a golf ball by working through an engineering design process. Students build on what they know to synthesize science, technology, engineering design, and math concepts related to technological design, drag, and lift in golf and apply their understanding to other curricular areas.


Introduction Notes:

Science OF GOLF: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples

STEM Lesson Plan / Adaptable for Grades 7–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the USGA and Chevron.

 

Background and Planning Information............................................................................................ 2

About the Video............................................................................................................................ 2

Video Timeline .............................................................................................................................. 2

Language Support ......................................................................................................................... 2

Next Generation Science Standards.............................................................................................. 18

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy................................................. 18

 

Promote STEM with Video............................................................................................................. 2

Connect to Science......................................................................................................................... 2

Connect to Technology................................................................................................................... 3

Connect to Engineering.................................................................................................................. 4

Connect to Math............................................................................................................................ 4

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry......................................................................................... 6

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................... 6

Identify Problems.......................................................................................................................... 7

Investigate Design Problems.......................................................................................................... 7

                Materials and the Inquiry Process....................................................................................... 7

                Open Choice Approach....................................................................................................... 8

                Focused Approach............................................................................................................. 9

                Media Research Option.................................................................................................... 10

                Related Internet Resources.............................................................................................. 11

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence................................................................................................. 11

Present and Compare Findings..................................................................................................... 11

Reflect and Redesign.................................................................................................................... 12

Inquiry Assessment...................................................................................................................... 12

 

Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan...................................................................................... 12

Integrate Video in Instruction....................................................................................................... 12

                Bellringer......................................................................................................................... 12

                Homework....................................................................................................................... 12

                Using the 5E Approach...................................................................................................... 12

Connect to Automotive Engineering............................................................................................. 13

Connect to History........................................................................................................................ 13

Use Video as a Writing Prompt...................................................................................................... 13

 

Copy Masters .............................................................................................................................. 14

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students.................................................... 14

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students........................................................... 15

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations................................................................................ 17

 

 

 

 

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 About the Video

The focus of Science of Golf (SOG): Why Golf Balls Have Dimples is about how small depressions on the surface of a golf ball make it unique and especially suited for the game. The video features Steve Quintavalla, senior research engineer for the United States Golf Association (USGA). It focuses on how the dimples reduce drag and lift. Through the evolution of golf balls and their relationship to Bernoulli’s Principle, golfers can figure out how the patterns of dimples on different brands of golf balls can help their game in different ways.

 

 Video Timeline

0:00     0:15     Series opening

0.16     0:37     What makes a golf ball unique?

0:38     0:57     Introducing Steve Quintavalla, who talks about dimples

0:58     2:10     Drag and the flow of air around the golf ball

2:11     3:10     How dimples help the golf ball to go further

3:11     3:32     Dimples and lift (Bernoulli’s Principle)

3:33     4:21     Some aspects of the golf ball are regulated by the USGA

4:22     4:34     Summary

4:35     4:50     Closing credits

 

 Language Support: To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the right side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Standards Connections for NGSS and Common Core ELA

Connected standards are listed in full on the last page of this document.

 

 

 

 

Connect to Science

Aerodynamics is branch of mechanics that studies the movement of air and other gases. It includes the examination of how air interacts with moving objects such as golf balls. Understanding these interactions allows golf ball designers to create golf balls that will fly the greatest distance. As the ball flies through the air, the dimples make a layer of turbulence at the ball's surface. This reduces the force of drag and increases the force of lift, which allows the ball to stay in the air for a much longer period. The video also presents Bernoulli's Principle and hints at the Magnus Effect. A very reliable source (http://www.franklygolf.com/golf-ball-aerodynamics.aspx) states that the laws of physics and aerodynamics might allow for a 10- to 15-yard improvement over golf balls that we have now.

 

 

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Related Science Concepts


• acceleration

• aerodynamics

• Bernoulli’s Principle

• Coefficient of Restitution (COR)

• drag

• force

• friction

• lift

• mass

• Newton’s Second and Third Laws

• patterns (of dimples)

• transverse forces

• turbulent airflow


 

Take Action with Students

         Middle school and high school students who have had physics may be familiar with aerodynamics, lift, and drag. After viewing the video, have students write formal and operational definitions for all concepts.

         Students can make a comparison of the balls from different sports and observe and compare their aerodynamic features. They might discuss how each is suited to their specific sport.

         Golfers of the day probably thought that the feathery was the best ball there would ever be. Golfers might think the same about today's balls. Some think that there's little that can be done to improve on the golf balls that are being hit now. Have students brainstorm innovations that haven't been considered. How would they test their ideas?

 

 Connect to Technology

The video highlights technology used by the USGA to determine the effects that dimples have on the flight of the golf ball. The USGA publishes a Conforming Golf Ball List on the first Wednesday of each month. It tests golf balls using technology like that shown in the video. The USGA has perfected the Indoor Test Range (ITR), which supersedes a wind tunnel and force-balance system to measure the aerodynamic properties of a ball. The ITR is a 70-foot-long open area with a series of stations along its length. At each station, the exact ball position and speed are measured as the ball passes by. This method of firing a spinning ball through a body of still air has proven to produce far more accurate and reliable data than trying to support a spinning ball in a laminar stream of air in a wind tunnel. From the information collected in the ITR, the coefficients of lift and drag for a number of different speeds and spin rates are calculated and combined for use in a simulation to describe the complete trajectory of any golf ball tested.

 

Take Action with Students

         The ITR is a 70-foot-long open area with a series of stations along its length. At each station, the exact ball position and speed are measured as the ball passes by. Have students pose explanations about how this might be done.

         Are all dimples equal? A great deal of technology is used to measure earthquake magnitudes, how far away planets are that pass in front of distant stars, and the depth of the chasm that is a golf ball’s dimple. Have students brainstorm to identify the technology they might use to find the depth, size, and patterns of dimples on several brands of golf balls. Do the depths of dimples vary between brands? What generalizations can be made based on observations? What would the table of contents of a Golf Ball Dimple Handbook have in it?

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         Golf ball manufacturers use computer assisted design programs to design dimple patterns. They use another program that uses computational fluid dynamics to learn how dimple patterns affect both drag and lift. Have students explain the benefits such technology offers a design team.

         New materials might completely change the way golf balls act. Have students envision a new material that will be such a game changer and explain what this material would do.

 

 Connect to Engineering

The engineering design process uses human ingenuity to draw from science, math, and technology to solve a problem. The video states that although the USGA doesn't regulate the size or shape of dimples, they do place limits on the ball's performance, such as size and weight, in order to ensure that a golfer doesn't have an unfair advantage over another player due to equipment and technology. This lack of limits allows sporting goods companies to come up with new dimple shapes and patterns.

 

Take Action with Students

         Coming up with a new dimple pattern might not be difficult. Engineering a new dimple pattern that would fit onto the surface of a golf ball might be. What would be the optimal way to confirm that the new pattern would make it to the first tee?

         A video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LvVuuaqCC7A offers some amazing footage about the airflow around a golf ball. Some entrepreneurs have a unique idea that changes the airflow around a car (http://www.gaspods.com/video/). After watching both videos make a diagram that shows similarities/differences that you saw.

         View: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3PslA4WcSos . How did the dimples on the golf ball help Phil Mickelson do what you saw? Draw a diagram with which to share your thoughts.

 

 Connect to Math

The video doesn't cover a lot of math, but from it a few areas can be highlighted.

         As stated in the video, the depth of dimples measures only 0.015 mm (although manufacturers can change the size and depth of dimples).

         Golf balls with dimples go twice as far as balls that don't have them.

         As stated in the video, everything you need to know about the flight of a new golf ball can be learned when it crosses the USGA's 70-foot internal range.

 

Take Action with Students

         Examine six different brands of golf balls and determine how many dimples there are on two dozen of each of brand.

         Examine six different brands of golf balls and identify the dimple pattern that is found on each of them. What might be the benefits of each pattern? Could there be dimple patterns that are not beneficial? Can the patterns you observed be sorted from simple to complex? Do simple patterns form larger patterns?

         Have students interact with online projectile simulators such as: http://phet.colorado.edu/sims/projectile-motion/projectile-motion_en.html. It includes

 

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drag forces but not the Magnus force (lift, due to spinning). Ask students if the flight paths when drag is included are parabolas, and if not, how can they tell? (lack of symmetry)? Ask students to sketch what they think the trajectory would look like with extreme backspin. (temporarily curved upward)

         Golf balls are fired down the USGA's 70-foot inside range at 190 miles per hour. How long does a golf ball take to make the trip? What would be the impact of gravity during that short time?

         Dimples can be expensive, especially if they are on golf balls that are very popular, such as a golf ball with a cover and dimple pattern that allows it to act in very special ways. A box of Titleist Pro V1 (12 balls) with spherically-tiled 352-tetrahedral dimple design costs $47.99. A friend of yours plays 18 holes of golf twice per week. If she loses two golf balls each round, how much will she pay for golf balls over the course of a year?

 

 

 

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 16.

 

 Explore Understanding

Guide a discussion to find out what students know about aerodynamics and the structure of balls used in sports. You might illustrate a tool, which in this case is a ball, with images such as these:

          http://www.turbosquid.com/FullPreview/Index.cfm/ID/529098

         http://www.turbosquid.com/FullPreview/Index.cfm/ID/529098

         http://www.turbosquid.com/FullPreview/Index.cfm/ID/529098

         http://www.turbosquid.com/FullPreview/Index.cfm/ID/529098

         http://www.istockphoto.com/royalty-free/baseball+seams#1c1d2173

         http://www.sportsmafia.info/tag/cricket-ball-types/  (cricket ball)

         http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/football-modeled-c4d/589200  )

 

After breaking the ice you might move groups of students to the four corners of the room. In each corner, groups will discuss what dimples do for the golf ball (or an aspect of aerodynamics that you’ve assigned to each corner) to activate their background knowledge. The four corners activity can be highly engaging for students and only requires five to ten minutes. Use the following or similar prompts to start students talking.

         One experience I have had with the flight of a golf ball is….

         Dimples help golfers by....

         I experience aerodynamics every day when….

         One way I have learned about golf balls changing over time is….

         One way I think I could change the dimples on golf balls or to make the patterns of dimples better is….

         Other sports that use dimples include….

         The flight path of a golf ball most resembles….

 

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         Things that affect dimples and what they do include….

         The engineer/scientist can help golfers with this topic by….

         Other things I’ve seenrelated to this topic are....

         The balls used in some other sports don’t have dimples because....

         Some factors controlling....

 

Show SOG: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples and, as they watch, encourage students to take notes on why dimples are a benefit to both golfers and golf, and any recommendations made by experts. Continue the discussion of how a design team might improve a golf ball using the following or similar prompts:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         The video describes....

         We learned from the video that….

         Something about what was done in the video includes….

         One problem that a design team might try to solve is….

         The experts in the video explained that….

         Variables influencing the potential solutions include….

         Our efforts might be limited by.…

         Engineering has improved golf balls by….

 

 Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions they have about improving the golf ball. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering problem that is researchable and/or testable. Bring groups together to discuss/share their problems. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Remind them as well that some engineering problems have multiple roadblocks that get in the way. Constraints have to be worked through to a successful conclusion. Most of the constraints placed on the golf ball come from the USGA. (See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R787h_c265M.) Those constraints don’t have to stop your science students from designing golf ball dimples in the classroom that conform to constraints that are set by you, or through consensus by the class. Some sample questions that reflect engineering design problems are:

         What factors can be changed that might improve a golf ball?

         How do the design constraints limit changes that can be made to a golf ball?

         Would increasing/reducing the depth of dimples improve performance?

         Is there an optimal pattern for dimples?

         How could we use the number of dimples on the ball to improve performance?

         How could we use the diameter of dimples on the ball to improve performance?

         What would having dimples of different sizes/shapes on the same ball do to the flight of the ball?

         How can a design team predict how their improvements will affect the flight of the ball?

         How might our changes to the golf ball make it travel further but make it not as good a golf ball?

 

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         Could dimples be convex instead of concave (see the Haskell golf ball at https://www.nbclearn.com/science-of-golf, Evolution of the Golf Ball, 2:11–2:17)?

         What materials will help to make an innovative golf ball with improved performance?

 

 Investigate Design Problems

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

 Materials and the Inquiry Process

Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation.

         To explore dimples, drag, and lift:Students might use smooth, soft, plastic hollow balls; smooth foam balls; permanent markers; elastics of different diameters and width; press and apply 3D dots; dots of fingernail polish to create convex dots; an old inner tube from a bicycle; leather punches or similar tools of various shapes; one hole paper punches of various shapes; thick paper to be punched; epoxy or other fast drying glue; scissors; a Phillips head screwdriver; or other tools to make dimples. Students will need to be cautioned not to poke holes through the surface of the ball, as that would introduce a variable that could cause confusion.

         Measuring tools such as stopwatches, magnifying lenses, electronic balances, spring scales, smart phone video cameras, graduated cylinders, protractors, meter sticks, or measuring tape, as well as calculators might also be useful in the design process.

 

Safety Considerations: Review safe use of tools and measurement devices as needed. Augment your own safety procedures with NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

 Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 14)

1.      Give students time to discuss their various questions. In light of the video SOG: Why Golf Ball Have Dimples, groups might agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might evaluate different problems and solutions. Some ideas that include designing a dimple shape, dimple size, or a pattern of dimples that will cause the ball to go further could serve as a model for this activity. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

  • The design problem we are solving is….
  • Materials we could use to implement our design are….
  • The science concepts involved in our design include….
  • The math concepts involved in our design include….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Barriers to success that we anticipate are….

  • Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

2.      Lead discussions to establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions might be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money.

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  • We think we can solve the problem by....
  • Our criteria for success are….and we will determine them by....
  • Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

3.      Have students determine the dependent variable they will use to evaluate their design. Check the students' understanding of each variable, such as distance the ball travels, how long the ball stays in the air, or added lift as evidenced by how high the ball flies at a given launch angle. To do this, have students determine other variables associated with the problem they are trying to solve. Then have them determine what data/evidence they need to collect to evaluate the success of their design.

4.      Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

  • Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is....
  • We will change our dimple type/size/pattern to....
  • We will test our prototype or model by….

         We will make design decisions, or changes to the independent variable, such as … to observe what happens to the dependent variable.

         The data we will collect are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

5.      Allow students to spend some time working with the materials they have chosen to implement their design. As students work with the materials, suggest that they reexamine their problem(s) and write down the procedures they intend to follow and how they will test their design and collect the data necessary to revise their design. Collecting evidence to promote future iterations and innovations is a critical step in the engineering design cycle. Guide students with prompts such as the following:

  • Information we need to understand before designing our dimpletype/size/patternincludes….
  • We will construct our prototype or model by….
  • While constructing our prototype or model we will….
  • To conduct our investigation safely, we will….
  • We consider future innovation by….

         We will represent our data by….

         Mathematical models we can use in our investigation include….

6.      Be sure to work with students to develop safe procedures that keep the variables not being tested constant, allowing them to make accurate measurements.

7.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution, as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to optimize their solutions and what they have learned.

 

 Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 15–16)

The following exemplifies one way students might design solutions to problems related to SOG: Why Golf Ball Have Dimples. Steve Quintavalla says, “It’s a small sphere. It’s about 1.68 inches or larger. And it has a lot of valleys or dimples in the surface.” How important is the little white

 

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ball? Bloomberg reported that the core business of golf was worth $69 billion in 2011 (www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-07-31/according-to-golf-the-economy-is out-the-rough.html). Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will build and test their designs, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. You might include constraints for issues of safety, time, or materials.

 

1.      Give students time to discuss their selected problem(s). Allow time for groups to examine all of the materials available to them. Guide whole-class or small-group discussions to identify the problem being solved and then to identify criteria and constraints against which solutions will be developed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is….

         We are designing a solution that will….

  • The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

  • We will make our model dimpled golf ballto....
  • Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design includes….

2.      Encourage students to think about how they can design and construct a golf ball with less drag or more lift considering variables such as dimple shape, size, or pattern. Guide the class to establish criteria and constraints for the solution to the problem. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money. Use prompts such as the following:

  • The problem we are solving is....
  • Factors influencing the lift of golf ball include….
  • We can build a model of a dimpled golf ball using….
  • Dimples can be concave, convex, or….
  • Constraints we must deal with include….
  • Our model dimpled golf ball will bedesignedto....
  • One thing we will need to do with the dimples is....
  • We’re not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….
  • Another thing we will need to do to change the drag of the dimpled golf ball is....
  • We think ourchanges will increase the lift of the dimpled golf ballbecause....
  • The dimpled golf ball we have designed is similar to an actual golf ball because….
  • Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are….
  • Our dimpled golf ball can be propelled in a uniform fashion by….

3.      Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection strategy prior to designing their dimpled golf ball. Provide students with the following prompts to guide how they will collect evidence for evaluating their design:

  • We will test our design by….

 

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  • We will change the dimpled golf ball design in the following ways to see the relationship to the dependent variable….
  • The data (dependent variable) we will collect are….
  • We will record and organize our data using….
  • We will use evidence such as _____ to determine the need for additional changes such as….

4.      Students plan and design their dimpled golf ball from the materials at hand. For example, students could use a plastic or foam ball and work with dimple shape, size, or patterns. Students should attempt to draw a grid on the surface of the ball. Groups that use foam balls might use scissors to cut away their dimples. Groups that start with a plastic ball can use a Phillips head screwdriver or other tool to make their dimples. Students will need to be cautioned not to poke holes through the surface of the ball as it would introduce a variable that could cause confusion. Also, students may attempt to replicate the Haskell golf ball (see the Haskell golf ball at https://www.nbclearn.com/science-of-golf, Evolution of the Golf Ball, 2:11–2:17), which has a raised pattern of dimples. They would then use leather or paper punches to punch out dimples from a suitable material that would be glued onto the surface of the ball. Encourage multiple trials. The launch angle and force should remain constant. Golf balls could be launched using a water balloon launcher (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iwu7Nyi47Jg), compressed air, or a golf club device that could be swung (as a suspended pendulum perhaps).

5.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions.

 

 Media Research Option

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy –

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources.  An example might be to look into the Haskell golf ball in greater detail. Students should brainstorm to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet search engines that might result in resources that will help them answer the question. Review how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and how to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Words and phrases associated with our question are….

         The reliability of our sources was established by….

         The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….

         Our research might feed into an engineering design solution such as….

         To conduct a safe investigation using the Internet, we will….

 

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 Related Internet Resources

         Misconceptions: http://www.titleist.com/technology/details.asp?id=20

         History/Magnus Effect: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_effect ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R787h_c265M

         Other Uses for Dimples: http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/mythbusters/videos/dimpled-car-minimyth.htm ; http://www.airliners.net/aviation-forums/tech_ops/read.main/51641/

         Dimples in Golf: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-dimples-in-golf-ba/; http://vimeo.com/38447045; http://www.franklygolf.com/golf-ball-aerodynamics.aspx

 

 Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their design investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bythe short distance our dimpled golf ball flew, I claim our raised dimples created an increase in drag because after multiple trials, all of the dimpled golf balls with concave dimples flew significantly greater distances.

 

 Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were not the same as those discussed in the video in that the fewer, deeper dimples evenly spaced on the surface of our golf ball, did not measurably reduce drag as measured against a same sized ball with the same mass that did not have dimples.

 

 Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

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         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One concept I now understand (or understand better) or could teach someone….

 

 Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 17.

 

  

Integrate Video in Instruction

         Bellringer:Play SOG: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples as students are getting settled. Write the following on the board: Fictional David Nelson, the father of your golfing classmate, asks, "If dimples on a golf ball make it travel further then why don't they use dimples on aircraft?" Have students respond to Mr. Nelson's question based on what they know about golf ball dimples and aircraft. Have students write a claim that could be the outcome of an experiment. Because they aren't going to do an actual experiment, have them speculate as to what evidence they would collect that would support/refute their claim.

         Homework:The USGA requires that the ball must have a diameter no less than 1.68-inches in diameter. The golf ball approved for use in England is 1.62-inches in diameter. Both balls weigh the same. Doesn't seem like much of a difference, does it? Would you be surprised to learn that American golfers buy English balls to use on golf courses in the United States? Make a bulleted list that identifies why a golfer might break the rules to use a ball that is only 0.06 inches smaller in diameter.

 

 Using the 5E Approach?

If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:

         Explore: Use the Design Investigations section of the Facilitate Inquiry to support your lessons on aerodynamics, drag, friction, turbulent airflow, mass, force, acceleration, Newton’s Second and Third Laws, lift, Coefficient of Restitution (COR), and patterns. Main concepts should include how friction/drag can be reduced by turbulent airflow.

         Explain: Show students SOG: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples from 0:58 to 2:10 that discusses drag and the flow of air around the golf ball. Have students research sports with balls that have strings or threads on their surfaces (or show: http://www.istockphoto.com/royalty-free/baseball+seams#1c1d2173; http://www.sportsmafia.info/tag/cricket-ball-types/(cricket ball); http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/football-modeled-c4d/589200). Students could make observations about balls with strings or threads by placing rubber bands around table tennis balls. Have students form generalizations about balls that have strings or threads and balls that have dimples.

 

 

 

 

 

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 Connect to … Automotive Engineering

Does a car face some of the same things that a golf ball does as it travels through the air? Some entrepreneurs think so. See http://www.independent.com/news/2012/apr/17/gas-pods-save-money-maybe-planet/?print to find out about their ideas for improving the gas mileage of cars. Draw diagrams that will explain how aerodynamics is affecting the golf ball and the car alike. Your drawing should include how dimples and Gas Pods make the golf ball and car more aerodynamic.

 

 Connect to … History

The complex science of aerodynamics can help us understand precisely how the air flows over the surface of the ball, allowing it to fly through the air like a plane rather than take on the trajectory of a bullet. Early work on understanding the flight of a ball through the air was done

in England by Benjamin Robbins. Compare what he found out about musket balls to what the video discusses about golf balls. Record your findings in a table.

 

 Use Video as a Writing Prompt

After students watch SOG: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples, have students use the concepts presented in scenarios such as the following.

         Some believe that Sir Isaac Newton first observed and explained how balls interact with the air. It is claimed that he did so when watching a lawn tennis match at his college in 1672. Picture yourself in Sir Isaac's place. Describe what you are seeing and share your thoughts that explain what you are seeing. Remember to use concepts presented in the video.

         Dimples have a big impact on how the golf ball acts in both flight and on the ground. After doing a bit of research, write to persuade a potential golf ball purchaser why she or he should purchase a ball that has a particular pattern of dimples.

         Have students who carried out the work in the Facilitate Engineering Design Inquiry use the golf ball they created (or the golf ball that another team created) to write an advertising piece that will proclaim to golfers, worldwide, why they should switch to that brand.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(13)

 

Science of Golf: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples

Use this as a guide to design and test your solution according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

Our class discussion and the video make me think about problems such as….

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will make and test your solution. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

         The materials we will use include….

         Our criteria for success are….

         Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

         The constraints within which we will work are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using sketches, tables, and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         In redesigning the golf ball, the innovations we incorporated included….

 

(14)

 

Science of Golf: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples

Use this as a guide to design and test a dimpled golf ball according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

Why are dimples an important consideration in the design of golf balls?

 

Identify Problems

How can we make a golf ball with more lift?

How can we make a golf ball with less drag?

What factors should we consider changing?

How does changing lift affect drag?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group how you might make a dimpled golf ball from the materials available. Use these prompts to help you.

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         One problem that a design team might try to solve is....

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include…

  • Our model dimpled golf balls will look like....
  • We think these changes willincrease theliftof the golf ball....
  • We think these changes willdecrease thedragof the golf ball....

         We will represent our data in the following way(s)….

         We will compare the data from each trial by….

         We will analyze the overall data by….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your observations and data in tables such as the one below. In the “Design Changes/Trial #” column describe the changes you made to your dimpled golf ball that were intended to increase the distance it will travel. Make sketches of each change you make to your design.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Design Iteration

Describe Changes/Trial #

Distance

(m)

1

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

Average

 

2

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

Trial 3

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         Describe how the changes you made to your golf ball impacted drag and lift.

         Describe how your data helped you make decisions to change your golf ball design.

         What changes made the greatest impact on drag and lift?

         What implications do your data have for the game of golf?

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         An idea that I understand better or could teach others is….

 

 

 

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Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial problem

Problem had only one solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was insufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Data and Analysis (based on iterations)

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

 

 

 

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Science OF GOLF: Why Golf Balls Have Dimples

Standards Connections

 

 Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

 

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

 

Engineering Design

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

 

 Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

 

 

 

 

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