SCIENCE OF GOLF: Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion - STEM Lesson Plan (Grades 4-12) Print

Objective:

Students identify and solve problems related to the role of Newton's first and second laws of motion in golf by working through an engineering design process. Students build on what they know to synthesize science, technology, engineering design, and math concepts related to motion in golf and apply their understanding to other curricular areas.


Introduction Notes:

Science OF GOLF: Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion

STEM Lesson Plan / Adaptable for Grades 4–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the USGA and Chevron.

 

Background and Planning Information......................................................................................... 2

About the Video........................................................................................................................... 2

Video Timeline ............................................................................................................................ 2

Language Support ........................................................................................................................ 2

Next Generation Science Standards.............................................................................................. 19

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy................................................. 19

 

Promote STEM with Video........................................................................................................... 2

Connect to Science....................................................................................................................... 2

Connect to Technology................................................................................................................. 3

Connect to Engineering................................................................................................................. 4

Connect to Math.......................................................................................................................... 4

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry....................................................................................... 5

Explore Understanding.................................................................................................................. 5

Identify Problems......................................................................................................................... 6

Investigate Design Problems.......................................................................................................... 7

               Materials and the Inquiry Process...................................................................................... 7

               Open Choice Approach..................................................................................................... 7

               Focused Approach............................................................................................................ 9

               Media Research Option................................................................................................... 11

               Related Internet Resources............................................................................................. 11

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence................................................................................................ 11

Present and Compare Findings..................................................................................................... 12

Reflect and Redesign.................................................................................................................. 12

Inquiry Assessment..................................................................................................................... 12

 

Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan..................................................................................... 12

Integrate Video in Instruction...................................................................................................... 12

               Compare and Contrast.................................................................................................... 13

               Homework..................................................................................................................... 13

               Using the 5E Approach.................................................................................................... 13

Connect to ELA Language Arts..................................................................................................... 13

Connect to Art............................................................................................................................ 13

Use Video as a Writing Prompt.................................................................................................... 13

 

Copy Masters ............................................................................................................................ 15

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students...................................................... 15

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students............................................................. 16

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations................................................................................. 18

 

 

 

 

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 About the Video

From 0 to 175 mph in a fraction of a second, today's top golfers can turn a golf ball into one of the fastest projectiles in sports. Science of Golf (SOG): Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion showcases the insights of Suzann Pettersen, a professional golfer on the LPGA Tour, with top-10 finishes in more than a dozen 2013 LPGA Tour events. In early 2014, Pettersen was listed second highest in the Women's World Golf Rankings. She may not be thinking about Newton's Laws of Motion while stalking her competitors on the golf course but she obviously knows that, "there's nothing that beats hitting a pure golf shot." Newton's Laws impact every golf shot. Jim Hubbell, a research engineer with the United States Golf Association (USGA), clarifies just how the First and Second Laws of Motion influence what happens to the golf ball.

 

 Video Timeline

0:00     0:15     Series opening

0:16     1:03     Fastest projectile in sports; introduction to Suzann Pettersen

1:04     1:21     Newton’s First and Seconds Laws of Motion and golf

1:22     1:39     Introduction to Jim Hubbell and Newton’s First Law of Motion

1:40     2:43     Definition of inertia and balanced and unbalanced forces

2:44     3:11     Introduction to Newton’s Second Law of Motion

3:12     3:45     Large and small forces; the formula

3:46     4:40     How the USGA measures change in velocity in a golf ball.

4:41     5:15     F=ma in operation

5:16     5:32     Summary

5:33     5:49     Closing credits

 

 Language Support:To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the right side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Standards Connections for NGSS and Common Core ELA

Connected standards are listed in full on the last page of this document.

 

 

 Connect to Science

Newton's first and second laws of motion are classical mechanics concepts discussed in both physics and golf. Kindergarteners examine how the direction or speed of an object can be changed with pushes or pulls. Third graders look at the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of objects. Fifth graders study the force that keeps the golf ball on the tee as depicted in the video. Middle school students plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. High school students study many forms of motion. They examine the mathematical relation between force and acceleration and conservation of momentum. They use engineering ideas to evaluate collisions. All of these spiraling looks at the laws of motion

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have to help, even if only a small way, to hit a ball in one of the few sports in which the ball starts out at rest.

 

Related Science Concepts


        force

        unbalanced

        balanced

        acceleration

        mass

        rest

        push

        pull

        action

        reaction

        opposite

        mechanics

        inertia

        friction

        speed

        net force

        equilibrium

        vector

        velocity

        inverse

        gravity


 

Take Action with Students

       Stage a drinking glass with a note card and coin on top of it for a classic demonstration of Newton’s First Law of Motion. Show students that when the card is flicked forward, the coin falls straight down into the glass. Challenge students to come up with other activities that are variations on this theme. They could write or make diagrams to explain their ideas.

       Have students conduct “penny races” using ramps and rolls of pennies. The challenge will be that students will determine how many pennies they will put in their own roll. After each race, students should predict whether their competitor's roll contains more or fewer pennies than their own does.

       Have students set up a ramp and roll a car down it. They can repeat their efforts adding mass to the car to see what impact it has on how far the car rolls. Have students explain how their data confirms Newton's Second Law of Motion.

 

 Connect to Technology

In the video, Jim Hubbell explains how the USGA measures the change in velocity of a golf ball starting at rest. Hubbell demonstrates how a striker comes out of the flywheel and strikes the ball, sending it to the end of the test area. They measure how long it takes for the golf ball to get to the end of the test area to determine how fast the ball will come off the tee when hit by a golf club. In the video, Hubbell explains how they can measure the change in velocity of a golf ball starting at rest.

 

Take Action with Students

       Have students watch SOG: Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion from 3:46 – 4:40. Then show them: http://www.britishpathe.com/video/golf-ball-test/query/progress. How would they compare the technology of today with that of 1961? Direct them to write a compare and contrast paragraph or label a diagram with their thoughts. They should be ready to cite evidence from their research and reading to support their ideas in answers to questions from you or their peers.

       There is a technology that has been around for a long time—a machine that can demonstrate the most efficient, repeatable golf swing. Show students SOG: Evolution of the Golf Club (2:29 – 2:52) to see the machine in action. Read more about Iron Byron at: http://www.golfchannel.com/news/jason-sobel/iron-byron-repeat-after-me/. It actually hits the golf ball so well that there is a golf school that tries to apply what has been learned

from Iron Byron to human golfers! Put what you saw and read together and develop a logical argument supported by evidence as to why machines like Iron Byron are needed.

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 Connect to Engineering

The engineering design process uses human ingenuity to draw from different disciplines like science, math, and technology to solve a problem. In the video James Hubbell states, "Acceleration (of the golf ball) will be directly proportional to the force you apply to it and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being accelerated.” Golf balls have a mass of 0.04593 kg (1.620 ounces) as set by the regulations of the United States Golf Association. USGA has also regulated the coefficient of restitution (COR) of the ball to 0.6. This means that if a ball is dropped onto something hard, at a speed of 10 m/s, it will bounce back at a speed of 6 m/s. As the mass of the ball is fixed, the ball's COR is fixed as well.

 

Take Action with Students

       Have students brainstorm to generate ideas about to how to take advantage of Newton's Second Law of Motion to hit a golf ball a greater distance. Students should make a drawing that illustrates and explains their ideas.

       Golfing great Ernie Els says, "You'll get better results—and often more distance—if you swing at 80 percent effort." Ask students to explain whether they think this is true/not true and include an analysis of what it implies about energy transfer. How does this quotation make sense in light of Newton's First and Second Laws of motion? Design a mechanism/method to test Els's statement. Guide students to understand that swinging the golf club at 80 percent effort will increase the accuracy with which the golfer contacts the ball at the sweet spot of the club, which will cause the straightest shot.

 

 Connect to Math

In the video, Jim Hubbell says, "Newton's First Law basically states that a body at rest tends to stay at rest." This is illustrated by a golf ball on a tee. Are there forces acting on the golf ball as it sits on the tee? What about gravity? How much weight is that tee holding? To find out, your students would take the mass of the golf ball (0.046 kg) and multiply it by the gravitational field constant (9.8 m/s/s). This is a pretty straightforward calculation that yields 0.441 N. Younger students might not know that the Newton (N) is the unit of weight in the International System. Knowing this simple formula (F = ma) would allow students to do a variety of interesting problems. Hubbell also states that the ball will fly away from the club head at about 1.5 times the velocity of the club as it strikes the ball. It might be interesting to see if there is a difference in ball speed when hitting the golf ball with the different clubs found in a golf bag. How does this connect to Newton’s Second Law? Is this process similar to determining weight in Newtons? Using Newton’s Second Law, students can calculate the net force that would be required to accelerate the .046 kg golf ball to 44 m/s/s. [0.046 kg × 44 m/s/s = 2.024 N]

 

Take Action with Students

Give students a few problems. Have them explain the relationships among the parts of the equation as well as give a solution.

       My golf bag has a mass of 13 kilograms. No wonder I’m tired after carrying it 18 holes. What is the weight of my golf bag in Newtons?

 

 

 

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       Display a headline such as Vandals Flip Over Smart Cars in San Francisco. Think about Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion as you ponder this situation. A Smart Car has a mass of 820 kg. The mass of the average car is 1500 kg. How much less does the Smart Car weigh? Some students may need to be reminded that mass must first be converted to

weight by multiplying each mass by the gravitational constant. How many Newtons are required to flip over an average car?

       Hubbell said that the ball speeds away from the club head at about 1.5 times the velocity of the club as it strikes the ball. Complete the chart and encourage students to make a visual representation of the data.

 

Club

v (mph)

Estimated Ball Speed

Driver

98.52

 

3-Wood

82.84

 

5-Wood

78.41

 

Hybrid

76.70

 

3-Iron

72.27

 

4-Iron

69.20

 

5-Iron

66.14

 

6-Iron

62.39

 

7-Iron

58.64

 

8-Iron

54.55

 

9-Iron

50.45

 

PW

46.36

 

 

       Your dad’s golfcart runs out of gas one block from your house. The golfcart has a mass of 495 kg with your dad sitting behind the wheel. What force is required if you push your dad and the golfcart home at 0.05 m/s/s?

 

 

 

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 14.

 

 Explore Understanding

Guide a discussion sparked by showing a piece of sports equipment that is used to hit a ball or something related to find out what students know about Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion. Use images such as those at:

       http://access.aasd.k12.wi.us/wp/baslerdale/2011/11/28/golf-ball-hitting-club-face-at-150mph/

       https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3j-o3UXRSI&feature=related

       https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fyWGBj37NOM

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After breaking the ice on the topic you might move groups of students to the four corners of the room. In each corner, groups will discuss Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion (or an aspect of Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion that you’ve assigned to each corner) to activate their background knowledge. The four corners activity can be highly engaging for students and only requires five to ten minutes. Use the following or similar prompts to start students talking.

       One experience I have had with Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion is….

       When I watched the video, I thought about….

       The video describes....

       Golfers are able to take advantage of Newton’s First or Second Law of Motion by....

       I experience Newton’s First and Second Laws every day when….

       One way Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion might impact our design is….

       Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion also impact the sports of….

       Things that affect Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion include….

       Sometimes, Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion make golf more difficult, such as when….

       Sometimes, Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motionarenecessary, such as when....

       The problem with....

       The engineer/scientist can help golfers by….

 

ShowSOG: Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion and encourage students to take notes about the Laws of Motion and the recommendations made by experts while they watch. Continue the discussion of how a design team might improve the application of the Laws of Motion to golf using the following or similar prompts:

       When I watched the video, I thought about….

       We learned from the video that….

       Something about what was done in the video that I connected to an event in my life was….

       One problem that a design team might try to solve was….

       The experts in the video explained that….

       Variables influencing the potential solutions include….

       Our efforts might be limited by.…

       Engineering has improved golf by….

 

 Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions they have about improving golf in light of what you know about Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering problem that is researchable and/or testable. Bring groups together to discuss/share problems. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Some example questions that reflect engineering design problems are:

       What factors can be changed that might improve how golf equipment maximizes Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion?

 

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       How do the rules of golf limit changes to golf equipment that might allow for a more efficient application of Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion?

       Would increasing/reducing the mass of a golf club improve performance?

       Is more force applied if the golf ball is hit harder?

       How could we use technology to improve performance?

       What is the optimal way to take advantage of Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion on the golf course?

       How can a design team predict how their improvements will impact the game of golf?

       How might golf clubs be changed to deliver the optimal force to the golf ball?

       What types of materials would cause the greatest change in velocity of a golf ball when delivering an external force?

 

 Investigate Design Problems

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

 

 Materialsand the InquiryProcess: Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation.

       To explore the interaction between mass and force: Students might use card stock paper, paper towel rolls, different kinds of balls with diameters less than that of a golf ball, rope or string (to outline a golf hole on floor of the classroom), a classroom trash can (to serve as the hole), golf balls, a way to deliver an external force to the ball being played, meter sticks, broom sticks, pieces of plastic, pieces of wood, pieces of metal, tape, glue, and rubber bands.

       To explore the efficiency of a more massive golf club: Students might use tees, golf balls, and hammers of different sizes. If hammers are not available, students can attach pieces of wood to a handle to make a golf club the mass of which can be increased by adding more wood.

       Measuring tools such as meter sticks, stopwatches, electronic balances, spring scales, smart phone video cameras, graduated cylinders, protractors, rulers, or measuring tape, as well as calculators might also be useful in the design process.

Safety Considerations: You and students should wear cover goggles. Review safe use of tools and measurement devices as needed. Augment your own safety procedures with NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

 Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 14)

1.     Give students time to discuss their various questions. Groups might agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might evaluate different problems and solutions. Some ideas include how to get the ball from the tee box to the hole in the fewest strokes by selecting the mass that will supply the force required and the mass of the ball that will be moved; if given hammers of differing sizes, which mass will best supply a force that will move the ball the greatest distance; or how could we deliver a hit to a golf ball without actually hitting it (e.g., how a sand shot is played—the club hits the sand, which sends the ball out of the sand trap) could serve as a models for this activity. To help

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students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

       The design problem we are solving is….

       Materials we could use to implement our design are….

       The science concepts involved in our design include….

       The math concepts involved in our design include….

       We are designing a solution that will….

       Barriers to success that we anticipate are….

       Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

2.     Lead discussionsto establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions might be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money.

       We think we can solve the problem by....

       Our criteria for success are….and we will determine them by....

       Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

3.     Have students determine the dependent variable they will use to evaluate their design. Check the students' understanding of each variable, such as the mass that will supply the force, the mass of the ball that will be hit, or how the force will be applied to make the ball move in the desired direction. To do this, have students determine other variables associated with the problem they are trying to solve and consider how they will measure or control all of the variables. Then have them determine what data/evidence they need to collect to evaluate the success of their design.

4.     Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

       Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is....

       We will change our the mass that delivers the force to the ball....

       We will test our prototype or model by….

       We will control the force with which we hit the ball by….

       We will make design decisions, or changes to the independent variable, such as selecting a larger mass to deliver the force (hit) to observe what happens to the dependent variable.

       The data we will collect are….

       We will record and organize our data using….

       We will measure our success by….

5.     Along with students, use rope or string to outline the golf hole on the floor of the classroom that they will later use their designs to play. The hole could also be located outside the classroom. All should agree on constraints for how the course is going to be played. Newton’s Second Law is the main focus of this activity and play should require students to use hits of differing forces in order to complete the hole. Allow students to spend some time working with the materials they have decided to use to implement their design. As students work with the materials, suggest that they reexamine their problem(s) and write down the procedures they intend to follow, how they will test their design, and how they

 

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willcollect the data necessary to revise their design. Collecting evidence to promote future iterations and innovations is a critical step in the engineering design cycle. Guide students with prompts such as the following.

       Information we need to understand before selecting a design to play the class’ golf hole in the fewest strokes includes….

       We will construct our prototype or model by….

       While constructing our prototype or model we will….

       To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

       Because the surface of the golf hole is carpet we will adjust….

       Because the surface of the golf hole is grass we will adjust….

       Because the surface of the golf hole is hard, slick tile we will adjust….

       We consider future innovation by….

       We will represent our data by….

       Mathematical models we can use in our investigation include….

6.     Be sure to work with students to develop safe procedures that keep the variables not being tested constant, allowing them to make accurate measurements.

7.     After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution, as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to optimize their solutions and what they have learned. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

 

 Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 15–16)

The following exemplifies one way students might design solutions to problems involving Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion. Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will build and test their designs, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. You might include constraints for issues of safety, time, or materials.

 

1.     Give students time to discuss their selected problem(s). Allow time for groups to examine all of the materials available to them. Guide whole-class or small-group discussions to identify the problem being solved and then to identify criteria and constraints against which solutions will be developed. For example, the ball that is used to play the hole can be moved by a mass of any shape. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money. Use prompts such as the following:

       The problem we are solving is….

       We are designing a solution that will….

       The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

       We think we can solve the problem by....

       Our criteria for success are....

       Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

       We will make our model golfing systemto....

       Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design includes….

2.     Encourage students to think about how they can design and construct a system that will

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apply controlled amounts of force to their golf balls, considering variables such as the mass of the ball selected to play the hole, the mass of the object selected to deliver the forces of controlled amounts, and how to move the ball in the desired direction while controlling the distance it moves. Did you introduce students in your classroom to Newton’s Second Law using the golf ball and ping pong demonstration in which the two balls are stacked in the hand with the golf ball directly below the ping pong ball? If you didn’t, know that when they are dropped as a unit, the COR of the golf ball will deliver a great deal of force to the ping pong ball (this demonstration can also be done with elastic balls of different sizes). Students might use the materials at hand to make this system work in a more controlled fashion. Guide the class to establish criteria and constraints for the solution to the problem. Remindstudents that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, and money. Use prompts such as the following:

       The problem we are solving is....

       Factors influencing the distance a golf ball moves include….

       We can build a system to move our ball using….

       In the video, we saw….

       Constraints we must deal with include….

       Our golfing system will be able to....

       One thing we will need to do with the mass that delivers the force is....

       We’re not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

       Another thing we will need to do with the ball we select to play the hole with is....

       We think ourchanges will decrease the number of ‘strokes’ required to play the hole because....

       We have designed a golfing system that is similar/dissimilar to the way things are done on the golf course because….

       Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are….

3.     Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection strategy prior to designing their golfing system. Provide students with the following prompts to guide how they will collect evidence for evaluating their design:

       We will test our design by….

       We will change the golfing system design in the following ways to see the relationship to the dependent variable….

       The data (dependent variable) we will collect are….

       We will record and organize our data using….

       We will use evidence such as _____ to determine the need for additional changes such as….

4.     Students plan and design a golfing system from the materials at hand. One possible design uses a golf ball, a paper towel tube, and a ping pong ball. The golf ball can be wedged into the tube to its equator and taped in place. The ping pong ball is placed in the tube where it rests on the golf ball. The tube can then be cut to a length (using trial and error) that allows the ping pong ball to travel the desired distance when the system is dropped on to the exposed golf ball. Encourage multiple trials of the system to achieve uniform distance. Other students may decide to control distance by varying the height from which the system is dropped. This system will result in better results if dropped on tile or another hard

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surface.

5.     After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

 

 Media Research Option

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy –

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources. Students might begin by researching why they are doing this media investigation. They might compare why some of the designs they learn about are better than others. Students should brainstorm to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet search engines that might result in resources that will help them answer the question. Review how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and how to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

       Words and phrases associated with our question are….

       The reliability of our sources was established by….

       The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….

       Our research might feed into an engineering design solution such as….

       To conduct the investigation safely using the Internet, we will….

 

 Related Internet Resources

       Newton's First Law of Motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0oyJmFe3ffg

       Newton's Second Law of Motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pgH-4P73e0A

       Newton's Laws of Motion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-gnZ-oUvNY; http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/newton.html; http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/louviere/Newton/

 

 Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their design investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements in accepted units. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bythe double bogey (based on the constraints agreed by the class) average that

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our system made on the golf hole, I claim our tube was too long because on multiple trials the same thing happened whereas other systems with shorter tubes made bogey or better on the golf hole.

 

 Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

       My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

       My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

       My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were similar to the other groups in the class in that although we were able to apply enough force to the ball to hit it a long way, we had a great deal of trouble getting the golf ball to go in the direction we wanted.

 

 Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

       My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

       My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

       My ideas changed in the following ways….

       When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

       I now understand or could teach other students….

 

 Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 19.

 

 

 

  Integrate Video in Instruction

 Compare and Contrast:Using your/their favorite graphic organizer have students compare and contrast these two laws of motion using information from SOG: Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion. Questions you could use to get students started might include:

       How are Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion alike?

       How are Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion different?

       What do these two laws of motion have in common?

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       How would you justify this comparison?

       What is the First Law better at explaining?

       What is the Second Law better at explaining?

 

 Homework: Have students use SOG: Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion as background to create labeled diagrams that represent each law in a golf course environment. Students might also write captions for their diagrams that answer the question: Is it possible that there is more than just golf going on at the golf course?

 

 Using the 5E Approach?If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:

       Explore: Use the Engineering Design Inquirysection to support your lessons on motion, balanced and unbalanced forces, inertia, friction, net force, equilibrium, and acceleration. Main concepts should include how the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

       Elaborate: Show students SOG: Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion, focusing on the section from 1:22 to 2:43 that discusses Newton’s First Law of Motion. After examining the video, have students do research as to why only 60% of putts from six feet are made. Students can give their explanation in writing or with a diagram and labels.

 

 Connect to … ELA Language Arts

Print the article found at: https://nfb.org/images/nfb/publications/fr/fr22/fr06sum05.htm. Before reading it, have students list four to five questions they have about the article on their paper. Then students should do a close reading of the article. As they read, have them code the passage with the following symbols: + = information I already know; ! = information that is new; ? = I have questions about this; ____ = information that interests me; N1 = Newton's First Law of Motion; N2 = Newton's Second Law of Motion. Once students finish the first read they should read it again for fluency. Students should finish this activity by writing to apply what they know about Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion to the article that they have read by identifying when the laws were brought up and what each student was using them for.

 

 Connect to … ART

The golf swing is fluidly flowing motion at its finest. Go back to the video SOG: Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion, and show students Suzann Pettersen's swing. How would they convert the motion of the swing into art? Giacomo Balla attempts to solve a similar problem in his Dynamism Of A Dog On Leash (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/great-works/great-works-dynamism-of-a-dog-on-a-leash-1912-giacomo-balla-1781174.html ). Students should pick their favorite medium and attempt to show the motion and movement of the golf swing over time.

 

 Use Video as a Writing Prompt

Sometimes, students can show an understanding of a topic if they approach it from the opposite side. After showing students the segments from SOG: Newton's First and Second Laws of Motion that describe the laws, have them write the briefest explanation they can think of for

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both of them. Then, have them write what would be the opposite of each of the laws. Finally, have students think of a planet on which these opposite laws were actually normal. Students might complete one of the following writing activities:

       Write an analysis of why you might or might not want to live on a planet that had the opposite laws of motion.

       Think about what it might be like to play a round of golf on a planet that had the opposite laws of motion. Write a story about your experience.

       Write to explain how the rules of golf might change on a planet that had the opposite laws of motion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Science of Golf: Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion

Use this as a guide to design and test your solution according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

Our class discussion and the video make me think about problems such as….

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will make and test your design solution. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

        The materials we will use include….

        Our criteria for success are….

        Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

        The constraints within which we will work are….

        We will record and organize our data using….

        To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

        My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

        My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

        My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

        I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

        My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

        When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

        One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

        In redesigning, innovations we incorporated included….

        I now understand or could teach other students….

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Science of Golf: Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion

Use this as a guide to design a system that can be used to complete a golf hole designed by the class, according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

Why are Newton’s First and Second Laws of Motion important considerations in the game of golf?

 

Identify Problems

How can we make a golfing system that will hit/send the golf ball a desired distance?

How can we make a golfing system that will hit/send the golf ball in a desired direction?

What factors should we consider changing?

Does the golfing system we design have to be an accurate model of what happens on a real golf course?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group how you might make a golfing system from the materials available. Use these prompts to help you.

       The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

       We think we can solve the problem by....

       Our criteria for success are....

       Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

       Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design includes….

       We think these changes willincrease the distance the golf ball travelsbecause....

       We will represent our data in the following way(s)….

       We will compare the data from each trial by….

       We will analyze the overall data by….

       To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your observations and data in tables such as the one below. In the “Design Changes/Trial #” column describe the changes you made to your golfing system that were intended to decrease number of strokes required to play the hole. Make sketches of each change you make to your design.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Design Iteration

Describe Changes/Trial #

Number of Strokes from Tee Box to Hole

Observations

1

 

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

        Describe how the changes you made to your golfing system’s design impacted the number of strokes required to complete the golf hole.

        Describe how your data helped you make decisions to change your golfing system design.

        What changes made the greatest impact on distance/direction of you golf shot?

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

        My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

        My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

        My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

        I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

        My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

        When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

        One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

        One thing I understand or could teach others….

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Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial problem

Problem had too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was insufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Data and Analysis (based on iterations)

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

 

 

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Science OF GOLF: Newton’s First & Second Laws of Motion

Standards Connections

 

 Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

 

Forces and Interactions

MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

MS-PS2-4.Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

HS. Forces and Interactions

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system.

 

Engineering

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-2.Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3.Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

HS-ETS1-1.Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

 

 Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

 

 

 

 

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