SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF THE 2014 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES: Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits – Inquiry Guide (Grades 4-12) Print

Objective:

Students will investigate questions and engineering design problems about how fabrics and coatings can be used to reduce friction while increasing competitive edge.


Introduction Notes:

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF THE 2014 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES

Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits

 

INQUIRY GUIDE for HANDS-ON INVESTIGATIONS

Middle School Focus / Adaptable for Grades 4–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the National Science Foundation.

 

Background and Planning Information............................................................ 2

About the Video........................................................................................................................... 2

Video Timeline ............................................................................................................................ 2

Next Generation Science Standards............................................................................................ 2

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy.......................................... 3

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry.............................................................................. 3

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................ 3

Ask Beginning Questions............................................................................................................. 3

Design Investigations................................................................................................................... 4

            Possible Materials........................................................................................................... 4

            Open Choice Approach.................................................................................................... 4

            Focused Approach............................................................................................................ 5

            Adapt for High School...................................................................................................... 6

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence............................................................................................. 6

Present and Compare Findings.................................................................................................... 7

Reflect on Learning..................................................................................................................... 7

Inquiry Assessment...................................................................................................................... 7

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry........................................................ 8

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................ 8

Identify Problems......................................................................................................................... 8

Design Investigations................................................................................................................... 8

            Possible Materials........................................................................................................... 8

            Open Choice Approach.................................................................................................... 9

            Focused Approach............................................................................................................ 9

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence........................................................................................... 10

Present and Compare Findings.................................................................................................. 11

Reflect and Redesign................................................................................................................. 11

Inquiry Assessment.................................................................................................................... 11

 

Copy Masters .............................................................................................. 12

Open Choice SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students.................................................................... 12

Focused SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students............................................................................ 13

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students.............................................. 15

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students...................................................... 16

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Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations............................................................................ 18

 

 

Background and Planning

 

About the Video

Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits highlights speed skater Shani Davis as it discusses the factors that influence how Kevin Haley and his team at the Under Armour Innovation Lab in Baltimore, Maryland, design the competition suits that speed skaters wear. The materials reduce the ridges and bumps on a fabric surface, yet add them in other areas to change the way the surface interacts with the fluid (air). The suits are also designed to reduce drag, a type of friction that exists between the individual and the air. Though engineered to reduce friction, the suit still has to fit like a second skin. Dr. Sarah Morgan, an NSF-funded expert in polymer science at the University of Southern Mississippi, is also highlighted. She researches and develops materials for the purpose of reducing the amount of friction on objects—POSS (pronounced PAWS)—that might someday be used in fabrics worn by athletes.

 

Video Timeline

0:00     0:14     Series opening

0:15     0:51     Introducing the sport of speed skating and Shani Davis

0:52     1:14     Describing competition suits and their importance to performance

1:15     1:33     Introducing Kevin Haley and how Under Armour designs the competition suits

1:34     1:48     Describing components of the competition suits that reduce aerodynamics

1:49     2:02     Showing other examples of competition suit designs

2:03     2:21     Introducing Dr. Sarah Morgan and NSF-funded polymer science research

2:22     2:34     Explaining the impact of friction in speed skating

2:35     3:05     Morgan’s research on POSS and how it decreases friction

3:06     3:35     Explaining drag in speed skating and other sports

3:36     4:56     Outlining Under Armour’s design process to minimize drag and friction

4:57     5:22     Outlining criteria for comfort and wearability for the athlete

5:23     5:34     Summary

5:35     5:51     Closing credits

 

Language Support: To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

 

 

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Engineering

MS-ETS1-1.Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-3.Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

 

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

 

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 12.

 

Explore Understanding

Use images of cases students might be familiar with to spark students thinking of the many ways in which they experience friction in their everyday lives. Examples might include walking home on a windy day, bicycle tires on the road, drawing a picture with a graphite pencil, or going for a swim. Help students understand where friction is at work in their lives by using the following prompts:

         Friction is….

         I experience friction every day when….

         Friction changes an object’s motion by….

         Sometimes, friction makes something more difficult, such as when….

         Sometimes, friction is necessary, such as when….

 

Show Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits and encourage students to jot down notes while they watch. Continue the discussion of friction and how it can limit and enable movement, using prompts such as the following:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         The speed skaters want to (maximize/reduce) friction because….

         The experts in the video are working to_____ so that….

         Drag is….

         The suits that the skaters wear help the skaters because….

         Friction helps speed skaters when….

         The goals of the design for the speed-skating suit were….

         Some challenges to the design of the speed-skating suit are….

 

 

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Ask Beginning Questions

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these questions…. Then, ask groups to list questions they have about the speed-skating suits, their design, and the effects of friction and drag. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to be researchable and/or testable. The following are some examples:

         How does the material a suit is made from affect the speed of the skater?

         How does the material the suit is made from affect the force of friction between the limbs of the skater?

         How does the materials the suit is made from affect the amount of drag the skater experiences?

         What additional coating materials are most effective in reducing friction or drag for the skater?

         How does the skater’s position affect the amount of drag he or she experiences in a suit of a given material?

 

Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation. In this inquiry, students might investigate materials with which they are familiar and the forces of friction related to these materials. Students would need fabrics of different varieties and surface types that they would attach to solid substrates. Fabric examples might include nylon, Lycra, denim, corduroy, or silk, or different grades of hook-and-loop fasteners. To test the friction of these fabrics against one another or another solid surface or fluid, students might use tape, pins, or tacks, and different shapes of wooden blocks, bricks, dense foam, or self-sealing bags filled with sand. To measure friction students might use a spring scale to measure the frictional force between fabric-covered objects. To measure the effect of mass of an object in the system of forces acting on the object, students might use a scale. Make sure students understand how to use these tools and measurement devices safely.

 

Safety Considerations: To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

 

Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 12)

1.      Groups might come together to agree on one question for which they will explore the answer, or each group might explore something different. Some ideas include the frictional force between fabric-covered objects, how they might measure the effect of mass on the amount of friction produced, or how the amount of surface area impacts the friction produced.

2.      Give students free rein in determining how they will explore their chosen question, such as one that explores the effect of friction related to surface type and motion, similar to the effects of friction in the speed skaters' suits. To help students envision their investigations,

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use prompts such as the following:

         The materials we will use are….

         We will create our friction surfaces by….

         We will measure the force of friction by….

         We will repeat our test _____ times and determine an average force of friction (e.g., the readings of the spring scale) for our various fabrics.

         The kinds of evidence we need in order to support our claim include…

3.      Students should brainstorm to form the plan they would follow in order to answer the question, which might include researching background information. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         The variable we will test is….

         The variables we will control are….

         The steps we will follow are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

4.      To explore the force of friction in a system of forces acting on an object, they would take into account mass and gravity, frictional force, the force enacted upon the object to move it, etc. Students might create shapes from wood or dense foam and cover them in various types of fabric (one at a time). They would measure the force of friction by using a spring scale, or another method they might devise themselves. Microscopic examination of the fabric surfaces could supply evidence for the varying amount of frictional force needed.

5.      Students could also explore the effect of different shapes on the amount of frictional force fabrics will exert by creating different shapes to cover from the foam or wood.

 

 

Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 13–14)

The following exemplifies how students might investigate how the material used in the suit affects the force of friction between the limbs of the skater.Give students leeway in determining how they will explore their chosen question, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation.

1.      Ask students questions such as the following to spark their thinking:

         What kinds of evidence would be appropriate for supporting your claim(s)?

         What are the other forces acting upon an object in a system where friction is a concern?

         How is friction related to these other forces when the object is in motion?

         How is friction related to movement?

         How can you create friction between two surfaces?

         How can frictional force be measured?

         Why does the surface type (rough or smooth) change the amount of friction that is possible between two objects?

         How is the force of friction different for smooth surfaces and rough surfaces?

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2.      Students might cover a block of wood, brick, or another material with different types of fabric (one at a time) and fix the fabric to the blocks using tacks or an adhesive. Then, they could attach a spring scale to one of the blocks and drag one block across the other, recording the amount of force that registers on the spring scale the moment the block begins to move or the amount needed to keep the block in motion over a distance. The test could be repeated several times, with the results totaled and divided by the number of trials to get the average force of friction. Ensure that students brainstorm a list of variables that are involved in their proposed experiments and determine which can be controlled and which cannot. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

         The variable we will test is….

         The responding variable will be….

         The variables we will control, or keep the same, are….

         We will make our frictional surfaces by….

         We will measure the frictional force by….

         We will repeat our test _____ times and determine an average frictional force needed to move the fabrics across each other.

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

3.      Make sure students understand the importance of making accurate measurements as well as repeating trials to ensure that their data are reliable by using these, or similar prompts:

         We will measure the amount of frictional force resisting the blocks' movement by….

         We will repeat the procedure at least _____ times because….

         To find an average value for the amount of frictional force that resists the blocks' movement, we will….

4.      To explain why the fabrics result in different frictional forces, students might observe the fabrics with a hand lens or stereo microscope or search the Internet for electron micrographs. Students could then make sketches or describe how the surface qualities vary in terms of roughness, uniformity, and nap.

5.      Students might continue their investigations by exploring how different shapes affect the amount of frictional force. In this case, the same fabric would be used for each trial, while the shape of the wood or foam might vary.

 

Adapt for High School Students

For high school students the activity might be altered for students to consider all of the forces acting on the objects in contact with each other. Students might create free-body diagrams of the forces acting on the objects and use them to decide which forces cannot be changed, which can, and how. Students might vary the forces that can be changed by changing the mass of the object, the frictional forces, or the force applied to move the object. As with the more basic activity, students should consider how to control the factors they have not chosen to vary in their investigation.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations as evidence to support their claims. As needed, suggest ways they might organize their data using tables or

 

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graphs. Students should analyze their data and then make one or more claims based on the

evidence their data shows. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because….

 

An example claim relating the amount of frictional force exerted by the fabric-covered blocks might be:

As evidenced byrepeated trials using nylon applied to the same block of wood, I claim that an average of 5 grams of frictional force resists the block's movement with nylon covering because for each trial, 4-6 grams of force registered on the spring scale.

 

Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, the information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as the following:

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My ideas are similar to my classmates’ in that the order of materials from most to least frictional force was the same even though their blocks were twice as big as ours.

 

Reflect on Learning

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         I claim my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence…

         My ideas changed in the following ways…

         I wish I had been able to spend more time on….

         Another investigation I would like to try is….

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 18.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 15.

 

Explore Understanding

Have students put the palms of their hands together and rub them back and forth as fast as they can for 10 seconds, then, as a class, discuss what they feel. What is the temperature of their hands? Was the action difficult or easy to perform? Then, have students do the same thing, this time with a coat of lotion on their palms. Again, what did they feel?

 

Show Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits and encourage students to jot down notes while they watch. Guide a discussion so that students compare POSS, the friction-reducing material, to the lotion they just rubbed on their hands. What might they deduce about the characteristics of POSS by the effect the lotion has on reducing friction? What other materials might have the same characteristics and resulting behavior? Continue the discussion of friction and how it can limit and enable movement, using prompts such as the following:

         The lotion affected the amount of friction between my hands by….

         Lotion is similar to POSS, because….

         We learned from the video that POSS is….

         The competition suits reduce friction by….

         Structures on the competition suits that might act like POSS include….

 

Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions associated with minimizing friction in the performance suits athletes wear. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering design problem that is researchable and/or testable. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Some examples are:

         What types of fabrication materials have the best properties for reducing friction between two surfaces?

         What types of coating materials have the best properties for reducing friction between two surfaces?

         What is the relationship between surface area and the force of friction acting upon an object?

 

Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials you have available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigations. In this inquiry, students might use weighted balls (golf balls would work well, since they have some texture and are of uniform size, or BBs for a small-scale setup), fabrics with varying smoothness characteristics, and coating materials like

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mineral oil, petroleum jelly, lotion, or vegetable shortening. Friction, or drag, against objects might be tested by dropping objects into cylinders of water, oil, or glycerin. Students will need a stopwatch in this case. It might also be measured by exerting wind power against the objects with the cool setting of a hair dryer or a fan. In this case students might need string or wire to suspend the object and a ruler or measuring tape to measure its movement.

 

Safety Considerations To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 15)

1.      Groups might come together to agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might explore different problems, such as how to minimize friction by using one type of fabric or another or how to reduce friction by coating an object with a friction-reducing material. Give students free rein in determining how they will design their solutions, but insist that they get approval before building and testing. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is….

         The materials we could use are….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Acceptable evidence for our solution would include….

2.      Lead whole-class or small-group discussion to establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions will be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials and time.

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are...and we will determine them by….

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

3.      Students should brainstorm to form the plan they would follow in order to solve the problem, which might include researching background information. Work with students to develop safe procedures that enable them to collect data. For example, to model reduced friction on an object, students might drop the object into a cylinder of water and measure the time it takes to get to the bottom. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         We will construct our prototype or model by….

         We will test our prototype or model by….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

4.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solution.

 

Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 16–17)

The following exemplifies one way students might test the effect of various coating materials

 

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on the friction that acts on an object and provides a solution to the problem How can the amount of friction of an object in water be minimized? Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will build and test the frictional force, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation.

1.      Allow time for groups to examine all of the materials available to them. Guide class or small-group discussions to identify the problem they are solving and then to identify criteria and constraints within which their solution will be developed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials and time. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is….

         The materials we could use are….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include….

2.      Encourage students to think about what types of materials might be useful and why, using prompts such as the following.

         Frictional force is minimized by….

         In the video, the friction-reducing coating material, POSS reduces friction by….

         We can model POSS using _____ because….

         We are not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

3.      Ensure that students understand the concepts of friction and drag. Review what friction is, how it is measured, and the factors that impact it. Guide students to understand that an object moving through water is comparable to the athlete moving through air (aerodynamics and hydrodynamics both fall under “fluid dynamics”), but hydrodynamics is easier to see and test in the classroom.

4.      To measure the effects of various coating materials on friction or drag, students might use weighted balls and coat them with various friction-reducing materials. Remind students to control for factors such as buoyancy of the balls by using all of the same kind (brand and style in the case of golf balls). Friction-reducing materials can include petroleum jelly, mineral oil, vegetable shortening, or graphite. Then, students could drop the balls in a graduated cylinder of water or oil and time how long it takes each ball to sink to the bottom. Help students visualize this procedure using these or similar prompts:

         In our model, the (lotion, mineral oil, etc.) represents….

         We will simulate air friction (drag) across the ball by….

         We will measure the friction acting upon our ball _____ times because….

         We will apply frictional force to our ball by….

5.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions.

 

 

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Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bymy time measurements, I claim petroleum jelly is the best friction-reducing agent because the ball coated in petroleum jelly took the shortest average of time to sink to the bottom of the cylinder.

 

Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, the information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were similar to those discussed in the video because the balls coated with friction reducing material experienced reduced frictional force, comparable to the suits worn by the skaters.

 

Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 18.

 

 

 

 

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Copy Master: Open Choice SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits

Use this guide to investigate a question about friction. Write your report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

My class discussion and the video encouraged me to think about these questions….

 

Design Investigations

Choose one question. Brainstorm with your teammates to come up with ways in which you might be able to answer the question. Look up information as needed. Add safety precautions. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.

         The variable we will test is….

         The variables we will control are….

         The steps we will follow are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct the investigation safely, we will….

 

Record Data and Observations

Record your observations. Organize your data in tables or graphs as appropriate.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about your results. How do they fit with what you already knew? How do they change what you thought you knew about the topic?

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         One idea/concept I am still working to understand involves….

 

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Copy Master: Focused SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits

Use this guide to investigate a question about how different fabrics exert different amounts of frictional force on each other. Write your report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

How much frictional force resists the movement of blocks sliding across each other when they are covered in fabric?

 

Design Investigations

Brainstorm with your teammates to come up with ways in which you might be able to answer the question. Decide on one idea and write a procedure that will allow you to safely explore the question. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.

         The variable we will test is….

         The responding variable will be….

         The variables we will control, or keep the same, are….

         The materials we will use are….

         The steps we will follow include….

         We will repeat our test _____times to make sure….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we need to….

 

Record Data and Observations

Organize your observations and data in tables or graphs as appropriate. The table below is an example of testing the frictional force resisting the movement of blocks covered by different fabrics.

 

Friction and Fabric Type

 

Block

Fabric

Surface qualities

Frictional force
(force applied before blocks start to move)

1

Nylon

 

 

2

Cotton

 

 

3

Felt

 

 

4

Velvet

 

 

5

Satin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         How did fabric type affect the amount of force required to move the blocks? Can you explain what you saw?

 

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         What other characteristics of the fabric-covered block affect how much force has to be applied before the block will move?

         How do you think that the results you obtained compare to results for various fabrics tested commercially?

         What sources of error might remain in this experiment, other than those for which we carefully controlled? How might you address these issues in a follow-up experiment?

 

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it change what you thought you knew?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         One concept I still do not understand involves….

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copy Master: Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits

Use this as a guide to make and test friction-reducing materials. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

Our class discussion and the video make me think about problems such as….

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will make and test your friction-reducing material. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

         The problem we are attempting to solve is….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Acceptable evidence for our solution would include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are...and we will determine them by….

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

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Copy Master: Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Shani Davis & Engineering Competition Suits

Use this guide to make and test a friction-reducing material. Record your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

What types of coating materials have the best properties for reducing friction between two surfaces?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group how you might minimize the amount of friction acting upon an object from the materials available. Use these prompts to help you.

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include….

         Frictional force is minimized by….

         In the video, the friction-reducing coating material, POSS, reduces friction by….

         We can model POSS using _____ because….

         We are not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

         We can give our ball friction-reducing properties by….

         We will determine whether the amount of friction acting upon our object changes by….

         To be safe, we need to….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your observations and data in tables such as the one below.

 

Friction-reducing material

Time to sink ball

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         How did the coating material affect the time it took for the ball to sink? Can you explain what you saw?

         How do other surface characteristics affect frictional force? How might this be different in air than in water?

 

 

 

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Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and then make one or more claims based on the evidence you observed.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copy Master: Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations

 

Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial question or problem

Question or problem had had a yes/no answer or too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Question or problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Question or problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial question or problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was not sufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Observations and data

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, not recorded, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial question or problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial question or problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

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