SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF THE 2014 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES: Nick Goepper & the Physics of Slopestyle Skiing – Inquiry Guide (Grades 7 – 12) Print

Objective:

Students will investigate questions and engineering design problems about the relationship of potential and kinetic energy and how to design the optimal ski for moving over varied surfaces.


Introduction Notes:

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF THE 2014 OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES

Nick Goepper & The Physics of Slopestyle Skiing

 

INQUIRY GUIDE for HANDS-ON INVESTIGATION

Middle School Focus / Adaptable for Grades 7–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the National Science Foundation.

Background and Planning Information............................................................ 2

About the Video........................................................................................................................... 2

Video Timeline ............................................................................................................................ 2

Next Generation Science Standards............................................................................................ 2

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy.......................................... 3

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry.............................................................................. 3

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................ 3

Ask Beginning Questions............................................................................................................. 4

Design Investigations................................................................................................................... 4

            Possible Materials........................................................................................................... 4

            Open Choice Approach.................................................................................................... 4

            Focused Approach............................................................................................................ 5

            Adapt for High School Students....................................................................................... 6

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence............................................................................................. 7

Present and Compare Findings.................................................................................................... 7

Reflect on Learning..................................................................................................................... 7

Inquiry Assessment...................................................................................................................... 7

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry........................................................ 8

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................ 8

Identify Problems......................................................................................................................... 8

Design Investigations................................................................................................................... 8

            Possible Materials........................................................................................................... 8

            Open Choice Approach.................................................................................................... 9

            Focused Approach.......................................................................................................... 10

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence........................................................................................... 11

Present and Compare Findings.................................................................................................. 11

Reflect on Learning................................................................................................................... 11

Inquiry Assessment.................................................................................................................... 11

 

Copy Masters .............................................................................................. 12

Open Choice SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students.................................................................... 12

Focused SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students............................................................................ 13

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students.............................................. 15

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students...................................................... 16

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations............................................................................ 18

 

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Background and Planning

 

About the Video

In Nick Goepper & The Physics of Slopestyle Skiing, Jordan Gerton, of the University of Utah, discusses some of the physics involved in a type of freestyle skiing event known as slopestyle, which will debut as an Olympic sport at the 2014 Olympic Winter Games. Slopestyle skiing, which has its roots in snowboarding, takes places on a terrain park, or snow-covered course that includes obstacles known as jumps and rails. Slopestyle skiers like Nick Goepper navigate the course while completing a variety of moves known as spins, grinds, grabs, and flips, all of which rely on a skier’s ability to change potential energy into the energy of motion needed to maximize one’s angular momentum. “Popping off,” or leaving a rail with as much momentum as possible, allows a slopestyle skier to attain the height and airtime necessary to score well with the judges.

 

Video Timeline

0:00     0:14     Series opening

0:15     0:52     Introducing Goepper

0:53     1:12     Describing slopestyle skiing

1:13     1:40     Introducing Gerton

1:41     2:16     Explaining jumping in terms of kinetic energy and potential energy

2:17     2:36     Goepper and Gerton describing the importance of “popping off”

2:37     3:15     Explaining the role of angular momentum and torque in spinning

3:16     3:58     Explaining how changing the moment of inertia changes rotational speed

3:59     4:32     Explaining the role of friction in grinding on rails

4:33     4:46     Summary

4:47     4:59     Closing credits

 

Language Support: To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations could be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

Energy

MS-PS3-5. Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

HS-PS3-3. Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

 

Engineering

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

 

 

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MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

HS-ETS1-2. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

 

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

 

 

Facilitate SCIENCE Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 12.

 

Explore Understanding

Use photographs or real-life examples with which students are familiar to show the many ways in which potential energy is changed into kinetic energy and vice versa. Some examples that you might use include a child on a swing, a waterfall, and a stretched rubber band. Guide students to converse with one another and then tell the larger group about the energy transformation occurring in each example. Help students understand the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy by using the following prompts.

         Kinetic energy is….

         Examples of objects that have kinetic energy include….

         Potential energy is….

         Some ways that potential energy can be stored are….

         Potential energy changes into kinetic energy when….

 

Show Nick Goepper & The Physics of Slopestyle Skiing and encourage students to jot down notes while they watch. Continue the discussion of the conversions of kinetic energy and potential energy. Also begin discussing the other physics concepts involved in slopestyle skiing. Use prompts such as the following:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         The experts in the video explained that _____ happens because….

         Changes in energy happen in slopestyle skiing when….

         Angular momentum is….

         Slopestyle skiing and other sports use angular momentum when….

         Changing the moment of inertia causes….

         Friction is….

         Friction is useful for slopestyle skiers because….

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Ask Beginning Questions

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these questions…. Then, ask groups to list questions they have about the physics of slopestyle skiing. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to be researchable and/or testable. The following are some examples:

         How does the amount of potential energy an object has affect its motion?

         What happens to a skier when potential energy is changed into kinetic energy?

         How does changing an object's moment of inertia change its rotation speed?

         How can a person change his or her moment of inertia?

         How does the friction between skis and a rail affect the skier’s speed?

         How can you decrease the friction between two surfaces?

 

Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation. In this inquiry, students might investigate the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy in a self-propelled toy. Students would need self-propelled toys, such as wind up toys, rubber-band airplanes, or pullback cars. If students are interested in studying angular momentum and moments of inertia, they would need tops or other spinning objects. If students are interested in studying friction, they would need materials that could be used to change the friction of a surface, such as wax paper, aluminum foil, sand paper, and cloth. They would also need an object to slide across the surface. Tools such as meter sticks, stopwatches, and spring scales may be used to measure the motion of the toys or objects used in the investigations. Make sure students understand how to use these tools and measurement devices safely.

 

Safety Considerations: To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 12)

1.      Groups might come together to agree on one question for which they will explore the answer, or each group might explore something different. Some ideas include investigating how changing the moment of inertia affects the motion of a spinning object, how wax affects the friction between surfaces, and how a toy converts potential energy into kinetic energy. Remind students that their questions should be related to the physics of slopestyle skiing. For example, slopestyle skiers change their moments of inertia when doing spins, and they rely on the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy when doing their jumps. Slopestyle skiers also put wax on their skis to change the friction between their skis and the snow or rails.

2.      Give students free rein in determining how they will explore their chosen question, such as one that pertains to the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy. To help students envision their investigation, use prompts such as the following:

         The materials we will use are….

         We will change the amount of potential energy we give our toy by….

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         We will infer the amount of kinetic energy the toy has by….

         We will repeat our test _____ times and determine the relationship between potential energy stored by the toy and the kinetic energy of the toy's motion.

         The kinds of evidence we need in order to support our claim include…

3.      Students should brainstorm to form a plan they would have to follow in order to answer the question, which might include researching background information. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         The variable we will test is….

         The variables we will control are….

         The steps we will follow are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

4.      To explore energy conversions, students might investigate how a self-propelled toy converts potential energy into kinetic energy. They could see how changing the amount of potential energy stored by the toy affects the toy's motion. To explore changes in moment of inertia, students could build a large top that has moveable weights. They could then change the distance between the weights and the axis of rotation of the top to see how the top's speed changes. To explore how wax affects friction, students could use a spring scale to drag a block of wood across a surface, and then repeat after applying wax to the block. Students may also vary the surface on which the block slides.

 

Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 13–14)

The following exemplifies how students might investigate the question of how the potential energy stored by a self-propelled toy is related to the kinetic energy of the toy's motion. Give students leeway in determining how they will explore their chosen question, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation.

1.      Ask students questions such as the following to spark their thinking:

         What kinds of evidence can you collect that will be appropriate for supporting your claim(s)?

         How does your toy store potential energy?

         How can you change the amount of potential energy stored by your toy?

         How will you measure the motion of your toy?

         How does the speed of your toy (or the distance your toy travels) relate to the kinetic energy of the toy?

2.      Students should determine how their toy stores potential energy, and then find a way to give the toy a variable but also measureable amount of potential energy. For example, if they have a wind-up toy, they could measure the amount of potential energy by counting the number of times the knob is turned. Then, to measure the motion of the toy, they can measure the average speed of the toy or the distance the toy travels. Ensure that students brainstorm a list of variables that are involved in their proposed experiments and determine which can be controlled and which cannot. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

         The variable we will test is….

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         The responding variable will be….

         The variables we will control, or keep the same, are….

         We will change the amount of potential energy we give our toy by….

         We will measure the motion of our toy by….

         We will repeat our test _____ times and determine the relationship between potential energy stored by the toy and the toy's motion.

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

3.      After students have measured the motion of the toy, they need to make the connection between the toy's motion and the toy's kinetic energy. Students may not know that an equation directly relates an object's speed with its kinetic energy. But at this level, it is sufficient for students to understand that if an object has "more motion" in the form of greater speed or longer distance traveled, the object also has more kinetic energy. As students carry out their investigations, have them connect the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy in their toys with the energy conversions described in the video. Use prompts such as:

         We will infer the amount of kinetic energy the toy has by….

         We know that potential energy is being converted into kinetic energy because….

         We might claim _____ because the evidence shows….

4.      Make sure students understand the importance of making accurate measurements as well as repeating trials to ensure that their data are reliable by using these, or similar prompts:

         We will control the amount of potential energy stored in the toy by….

         We will repeat the procedure at least _____ times because….

         To find an average value for the motion of the toy, we will….

5.      Students might continue their investigations by exploring how moving uphill or downhill affects the motion of the toy, or by comparing the energy conversions in different toys. Some students may want to investigate the energy conversions in different kinds of systems. For example, students may want to investigate the energy conversions in a ball rolling down a ramp, which is comparable to a skier going down a slope.

 

Adapt for High School Students

For high school students an alternative inquiry might be to calculate the changes in potential energy and kinetic energy of an object. For example, students could study the energy conversions of a ball rolling down a ramp. For this activity, students will have to use the equations for gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy to determine the energy of the ball before and after it rolls down the ramp. To do this, students should measure the starting height of the ball (the height of the ramp) and calculate the ball's gravitational potential energy using the equation G.P.E. = mgh. Students should then find the ball's average velocity as it rolls across the floor after coming off the ramp and then use the average velocity to find the ball's kinetic energy using the equation K.E. = ½mv2. Lead a discussion about why all of the ball's potential energy does not get converted in to kinetic energy and why their measurement of kinetic energy may not be accurate. Also discuss how the activity is related to slopestyle skiing. Some ideas you may wish to discuss are:

•    The gravitational potential energy of a skier is converted into kinetic energy as the skier moves downhill.

 

 

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•    The velocity of a skier increases as his or her kinetic energy increases.

•    Some of the skier's potential and kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy because of friction. (The same is true for a ball rolling down a ramp.)

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations as evidence to support their claims. As needed, suggest ways they might organize their data using tables or graphs. Students should analyze their data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence their data shows. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because….

 

An example claim relating a toy's potential energy to its kinetic energy might be:

As evidenced bytrials using different amounts of potential energy, I claim that storing more potential energy in the toy results in more kinetic energy because the distance the toy moved increased as the amount of potential energy stored in the toy increased.

 

Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, the information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as the following:

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My findings are similar to my classmates’ in that the data from groups that researched the same question had similar results—all the toys moved farther when they were given more potential energy.

 

Reflect on Learning

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence…

         My ideas changed in the following ways…

         I wish I had been able to spend more time on….

         Another investigation I would like to try is….

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 18.

 

 

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Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 15.

 

Explore Understanding

Guide a discussion to find out what students know about the equipment used in slopestyle skiing or skiing in general. Use the following or similar prompts to start students talking.

         Some kinds of equipment that skiers use include….

         The equipment that skiers use is probably made from….

         Slopestyle skiing is different from regular skiing in that….

         Slopestyle skiing is similar to regular skiing in that….

         Properties that a slopestyle skier might want in his or her equipment include….

         The equipment has changed over the history of the sport because….

 

Show Nick Goepper & The Physics of Slopestyle Skiing and encourage students to take notes while they watch. Continue the discussion of skiing equipment and slopestyle skiing courses using the following or similar prompts:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         The experts in the video explained that….

         The rails and other objects on a slopestyle skiing course are probably made from….

         A slopestyle skier interacts with the objects on a course by….

         Friction is important in slopestyle skiing because….

         Friction varies as a skier goes down a slopestyle course because….

 

Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list problems associated with improving a slopestyle skier’s performance. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering design problem that is researchable and/or testable. Remind students that engineering design problems usually have multiple solutions. Some examples are:

         What material should skis be made from so that they slide well over a variety of surfaces?

         What shape and length of poles are best for making tight turns?

         How flexible should ski boots be to maximize a slopestyle skier’s jump?

         What ski length optimizes a skier’s ability to do tricks?

 

Design Investigations

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

Possible Materials Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials you have available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigations. In this inquiry, students might use a board and bricks to make a ramp and use aluminum foil, wax paper, and cloth to change the surface of the ramp. Students might also use narrow pieces of wood or plastic to model skis. The surfaces of

 

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the model skis may be modified using sandpaper or wax. Students will need tools to measure

how well the skis move down the ramp or how quickly a ski spins. For example, student may use a stopwatch to find the time needed for a ski to slide down the ramp or may use a spring scale to measure the force of friction as a ski is pulled down (or up) the ramp. Make sure students understand and know how to use these tools safely prior to the activity.

 

Safety Considerations To augment your own safety procedures, see NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 15)

1.      Groups might come together to agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might explore different problems, such as what material a ski should be made from to reduce friction on a variety of surfaces, how the length of a ski affects a skier’s ability to spin, or how boot flexibility affects a skier’s ability to jump. Give students free rein in determining how they will design their solutions, but insist that they get approval before building and testing. To help students envision their investigations, such as one pertaining to how boot flexibility impacts a skier’s jump, use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are attempting to solve is….

         The materials we could use are….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Acceptable evidence for our solution would include….

2.      Lead whole-class or small-group discussion to establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions will be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials and time.

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are... and we will determine them by….

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

3.      Students should brainstorm to form a plan they would have to follow in order to solve the problem, which might include researching background information. Work with students to develop safe procedures that enable them to collect data. For example, to solve how boot flexibility affects a skier’s ability to jump, students might build a prototype, or working full-size model, by modifying the flexibility of their own footwear with cardboard or tape and find the difference in their jump height. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is….

         Our drawing of our prototype will show….

         We will construct our prototype or model by….

         We will test our prototype or model by….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

4.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions.

 

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Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 16–17)

The following exemplifies one way students might design and test a model ski that provides a solution to the problem What material should a ski be made from to reduce friction over a variety of surfaces? Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will design and test the model ski, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation.

1.      Allow time for groups to examine all of the materials available to them. Guide class or small-group discussion to identify the problem they are solving and then to identify criteria and constraints within which their solution will be developed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials and time. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is….

         The materials we could use are….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include.…

2.      Encourage students to think about how they can design their skis and vary the surfaces over which their model ski will slide, using prompts such as the following.

         During slopestyle skiing, skis slide over….

         We can model changing surfaces using _____ because….

         We are not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

         We can modify our model ski by….

3.      Ensure students understand the concept of friction. Review what friction is and how friction affects slopestyle skiers.

4.      To model different surfaces over which skis travel, students could build a ramp that has lanes covered with different materials. For example, they could use a board and bricks or books to build a ramp, cover one third of the board with aluminum foil, cover one third with wax paper, and leave the other third uncovered. Students can then use strips of wood and different plastics to make model skis. Then, students could use a stopwatch to find the time needed for the model skis to move down each surface. Skis that move quickly down each surface have little friction between them and the surfaces and would be good for a skier who wants to move with a high speed down a slope or along a rail. Help students visualize this procedure using these or similar prompts:

         In our model ski slope, the different surfaces represent….

         We will test different ski materials by….

         We will measure the friction between the model ski and the surfaces by….

         We will measure the friction between each ski and each surface _____ times because….

5.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions.

 

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Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bymy measurements, I claim a ski made of a stiff plastic has the least amount of friction between it and various surfaces because the model ski made from stiff plastic traveled down each surface the fastest.

 

Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, the information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were similar to those that I found on the Internet in that the bases of skis are usually made of plastic. However, my results were different from those that I found on the Internet in that skis are made of several different materials layered on top of each other.

 

Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 18.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copy Master: Open Choice SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Nick Goepper & The Physics of Slopestyle Skiing

Use this guide to investigate a question about energy conversions, moment of inertia, or friction. Write your report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

My class discussion and the video encouraged me to think about these questions….

 

Design Investigations

Choose one question. Brainstorm with your teammates to come up with ways in which you might be able to answer the question. Look up information as needed. Add safety precautions. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.

         The variable we will test is….

         The variables we will control are….

         The steps we will follow are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct the investigation safely, we will….

 

Record Data and Observations

Record your observations. Organize your data in tables or graphs as appropriate.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about your results. How do they fit with what you already knew? How do they change what you thought you knew about the topic?

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         One idea/concept I am still working to understand involves….

 

 

 

 

 

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COPY MASTER: Focused SCIENCE Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Nick Goepper & The Physics of Slopestyle Skiing

Use this guide to investigate a question about how changing the amount of stored potential energy affects the motion of a toy. Write your report in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

How is the potential energy stored by a self-propelled toy related to the kinetic energy of the toy's motion?

 

Design Investigations

Brainstorm with your teammates to come up with ways in which you might be able to answer the question. Decide on one idea and write a procedure that will allow you to safely explore the question. Use the prompts below to help focus your thinking.

         The variable we will test is….

         The responding variable will be….

         The variables we will control, or keep the same, are….

         We will change the amount of potential energy we give our toy by….

         We will measure the motion of our toy by….

         We will repeat our test _____ times and determine the relationship between potential energy stored by the toy and the toy's motion.

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Record Data and Observations

Organize your observations and data in tables or graphs as appropriate, such as the example that follows.

 

Potential Energy Stored by Toy and Toy's Motion

 

Amount of Potential Energy Stored (i.e. number of turns for a wind-up toy, distance pulled back for a pull-back toy)

Distance Traveled by Toy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         How did the amount of potential energy relate to the toy's motion?

 

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         How is the toy's motion related to its kinetic energy?

         How can you make a graph of your results?

         What does the shape of your graph tell you about the relationship between the potential energy stored by the toy and the toy's motion?

 

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My ideas are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect on Learning

Think about what you found out. How does it fit with what you already knew? How does it change what you thought you knew?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because of this evidence….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

         One concept I still do not understand involves….

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

 

 

(14)

Copy Master: Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Nick Goepper & The Physics of Slopestyle Skiing

Use this as a guide to design and test a model ski that solves a problem related to slopestyle skiing. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify a Problem

The video makes me think about problems such as….

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will design and test a model ski that reduces friction, that is the best length for spinning, or a boot that enables the best jump. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

         The problem we are attempting to solve is….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Acceptable evidence for our solution would include…

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are...and we will determine them by….

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

(15)

COPY MASTER: Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students

 

Nick Goepper & The Physics of Slopestyle Skiing

Use this as a guide to design and test a model ski that solves a problem related to slopestyle skiing. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify a Problem

What material should a ski be made from to reduce friction over a variety of surfaces?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group how you might make a model ski that reduces friction over a variety of surfaces. Add drawings and sketches to explain your ideas. Use these prompts to help you.

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include…

         During slopestyle skiing, skis slide over….

         We can model changing surfaces using _____ because….

         We are not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

         We can modify our model ski by….

         To be safe, we need to….

 

Record Data and Observations

Record and organize your observations and data in tables such as the one below.

 

Time needed to move down the slope (s)

Ski material

Trial

Surface 1

Surface 2

Surface 3

Material 1

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

Material 2

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         Which ski material and surface combination had the least amount of friction? How do you know?

         Which ski material would be the best for a slopestyle skier who wants to move quickly down a course?

 

 

 

 

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Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and then make one or more claims based on the evidence you observed.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(17)

 

 

 

Copy Master: Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations

 

Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial question or problem

Question or problem had had a yes/no answer or too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Question or problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Question or problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial question or problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was not sufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Observations and data

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, not recorded, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial question or problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial question or problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

 

(18)

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