SCIENCE OF GOLF: Energy in Collisions and Compressions -STEM Lesson Plan (Grades 7-12) Print

Objective:

Students identify and solve problems related to the period of impact between the ball and the club by working through an engineering design process. Students build on what they know to synthesize science, technology, engineering design, and math concepts related to the energy in collisions and compressions and apply their understanding to other curricular areas.


Introduction Notes:

Science OF GOLF: Energy in Collisions and Compressions

STEM Lesson Plan / Adaptable for Grades 7–12

Lesson plans produced by the National Science Teachers Association.

Video produced by NBC Learn in collaboration with the USGA and Chevron.

 

Background and Planning Information............................................................................................ 2

About the Video............................................................................................................................ 2

Video Timeline .............................................................................................................................. 2

Language Support ......................................................................................................................... 2

Next Generation Science Standards.............................................................................................. 20

Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts/Literacy................................................. 20

 

Promote STEM with Video............................................................................................................. 2

Connect to Science......................................................................................................................... 2

Connect to Technology................................................................................................................... 3

Connect to Engineering.................................................................................................................. 4

Connect to Math............................................................................................................................ 5

 

Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry......................................................................................... 6

Explore Understanding................................................................................................................... 6

Identify Problems.......................................................................................................................... 7

Investigate Design Problems.......................................................................................................... 8

                Materials and the Inquiry Process....................................................................................... 8

                Open Choice Approach....................................................................................................... 8

                Focused Approach............................................................................................................. 9

                Media Research Option.................................................................................................... 11

                           Related Internet Resources...................................................................................... 11

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence................................................................................................. 12

Present and Compare Findings..................................................................................................... 12

Reflect and Redesign.................................................................................................................... 12

Inquiry Assessment...................................................................................................................... 13

 

Incorporate Video into Your Lesson Plan...................................................................................... 13

Integrate Video in Instruction....................................................................................................... 13

                Bellringer......................................................................................................................... 13

                Homework....................................................................................................................... 13

                Using the 5E Approach...................................................................................................... 13

Connect to English/Language Arts................................................................................................. 13

Connect to History........................................................................................................................ 14

Use Video as a Writing Prompt...................................................................................................... 14

 

Copy Masters .............................................................................................................................. 15

Open Choice ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students.................................................... 15

Focused ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry Guide for Students........................................................... 16

Assessment Rubric for Inquiry Investigations................................................................................ 19

 

 

 

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About the Video

Science of Golf (SOG): Energy in Collisions and Compressionshighlights what happens during the 500 microseconds that the driver is in contact with the ball. It features professional golfer Mike Miller, who won the Wilson’s Cup Invitational in 2013, and is a two-time Metropolitan Golf Association player of the year. He thinks that, “as long as you go and get fitted for the right club for you, you’ll find a way to hit it far.” SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions also features Steve Quintavalla, Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering), senior research engineer for the United States Golf Association (USGA), and Matt Pringle, Ph.D., manager of research and development for equipment standards at the USGA. Pringle explores the transfer of energy when the golf ball is hit and explains the pendulum test. Quintavalla explains how coefficient of restitution is calculated and demonstrates how the USGA tests for it.

 

 Video Timeline

0:00        0:15        Series opening

0:15        0:47        Collision with a driver; introduction to Mike Miller

0:48        1:33        Definition of collisions and compressions with Pringle comment

1:34        1: 49   Potential energy and elastic potential energy explained and Pringle’s take on it

1:50        1: 58       Matt Pringle: importance of energy storage by the golf ball

1:59        2:12        Graphic: energy transfer to the golf ball

2:13        2:18        Steve Quintavalla: the ball loses energy in the transfer

2:19        2:43        Measuring coefficient of restitution

2:44        3:26        How to calculate the coefficient of restitution

3:27        3:39        Club heads that transfer energy better

3:40        4:26        The pendulum test—how flexible is the club head?

4:27        4:33        Golf clubs can still help….

4:34        4:50        Summary

4:51        5:06        Closing credits

 

 Language Support:To aid those with limited English proficiency or others who need help focusing on the video, click the Transcript tab on the right side of the video window, then copy and paste the text into a document for student reference.

 

Standards Connections for NGSS and Common Core ELA

Connected standards are listed in full on the last page of this document.

 

 

Connect to Science

Collisions, compressions, and coefficient of restitution are classical mechanics concepts discussed in both physics and golf. Collisions occur when two things come together with force. Compression occurs in the 500 microseconds that the driver is in contact with the ball, causing it to compress like a coiled spring. Coefficient of restitution (COR) is a measurement of how much a ball will rebound when it is hit by the face of a golf club. Golfers would like to have golf clubs and balls that maximize COR.

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Related Science Concepts


• acceleration

• coefficient of restitution

• force

• initial velocity

• kinetic energy

• mass

• momentum

• Newton’s Second and Third Laws

• potential energy

• spherical symmetry

• velocity

• weight


 

Take Action with Students

         Have students visit http://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/amuse_park_physics.pdf. Pages 49–51 will allow students to explore collisions and give you some feedback on what they learned.

         Golf is not the only sport that sets a limit on COR. Challenge students to find out which sports limit COR and how those limitations were set, and make generalizations about the role of COR in sports.

         Have students watch the video at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c31Z9qSzimk. Polara CEO Dave Felker also tells us that he is the Chief Technical Officer of Polara. He states, “We make golf balls that go straight. We make golf clubs that enable golfers to hit the golf ball much farther than any other golf club.” Not shown in this video is a new golf ball that they have called the Polara XDS. It actually goes further than other golf balls when hit by the same club. Felker says that Polara makes products that are only governed by the laws of physics and that they're not limited by the USGA rules and are just trying to make golf more fun for the average golfer. Is this a good use of science? Think about the ramifications of what science used in this manner could mean to any sport. Make a presentation that explains why or why not science should be used in this manner.

 

 Connect to Technology

SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions highlights the technology that USGA uses to ensure the game does not rely on technology at the expense of a player's abilities. The USGA tests golf balls and golf clubs and, if necessary, puts limits on their capabilities. Because it takes fractions of a second for the ball to deform and come back to its former shape after being hit, the USGA uses a machine called the universal tester that can put varying amounts of force on a golf ball to help examine how it compresses when it's struck. The machine applies up to 2,000 pounds of pressure to a golf ball and then determines how long it takes for it to return to its original shape. The faces of golf clubs are designed to be flexible. If a golf club can store more energy when it hits the golf ball, less energy is lost, causing greater ball speed. Matt Pringle demonstrates the apparatus used to determine how flexible a club head is. In the pendulum test, a steel ball attached to a hammer swings into the clubface.

 

Take Action with Students

         Watch the video from 3:40–4:26. Draw a diagram that could justify why or why not the pendulum test could be used to determine the COR of both the golf ball and the golf club and thereby eliminate the Universal Tester.

         The slow speed video that was used in the SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions was very effective in clarifying what occurs during the club’s collision with the ball. Make a

 

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diagram to show how a high-speed camera could be used to determine what the COR of

different brands of golf balls. Your ideas might be tried out using the camera in your cellphone.

         Share with students the following post found on an Internet golf forum: I've been away from the board for about a week now working on my new line of putters. The design is now complete and I'm in the process of producing a prototype. The idea is to create a putter with a high coefficient of restitution. I believe the trampoline effect will make the putter more forgiving and help golfers make smoother strokes on long putts. Look for them in stores Christmas 2009. (http://forums.golfreview.com/showthread.php?11201-My-new-line-of-high-C-O-R-putters). Considering what you know about the swing involved in putting, explain why you would or would not buy a putter with trampoline effect. Support your ideas with what you know about COR.

 

 Connect to Engineering

The engineering design process uses human ingenuity to draw from science, math, and technology to solve a problem. In SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions the problem is in understanding the role of and controlling the COR in the game of golf. COR results from the flexible nature of the club head and golf ball. Both of them are flexible and can be compressed during the 500 microseconds that the club is in contact with the ball. Frank Thomas, past Technical Director of the USGA for 26 years (http://www.franklygolf.com/) says, “If the face of the club deforms and recovers during impact (like a trampoline), this takes up some of the deformation that would have otherwise been in the ball, [and] the COR would increase as there are fewer losses in the deformation and recovery of the club face than in the ball.” To ensure golf does not rely only on technology at the expense of a player's abilities, the USGA puts limits on the performance of golf equipment as was stated in the video.

 

Take Action with Students

Golfclub-technology.com and other websites state that as swing speed increases, the ball travels farther and vice versa. The average (male) golfer swings at 90 miles per hour as compared with a professional who swings at 112 miles per hour. (The average professional female swings at 94 miles per hour.) The COR can be calculated using the following formula.

 

                    e                        =                       Vout                     ÷                            Vin

coefficient of restitution (e) = rebound velocity in mph (Vout) ÷ initial velocity in miles per hour (Vin)

 

         What effect does the USGA rule that limits the COR of a clubhead have on the slower swing speed golfer versus the high swing speed player? Develop a graphic or make a claim supported by evidence about the effect of limiting the COR to 0.830.

         Write a letter to the USGA offering a strategy that will make COR fair for all players regardless of their swing speed. Use your analysis of this situation to request a change to the rules of golf.

 

 

 

 

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Connect to Math

Steve Quintavalla states in the video that if two objects approach each other at 100 meters per second and they collide and then they separate at 80 meters per second then the coefficient of restitution would be 80 ÷ 100, or 0.8. COR = e = Vout ÷ Vin. If you're dropping the ball, c = coefficient of restitution (dimensionless), h = bounce height, H = drop height. The math used here is pretty straightforward and well within the reach of middle school students, especially if you let them use a calculator or spreadsheet. Other COR formulas can be found at: http://www.studymode.com/essays/Coefficient-Of-Restitution-Of-a-Golf-1014302.html; http://ebm.ufabc.edu.br/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Measurement-of-coefficient-of-restitution.pdf; or http://www.franklygolf.com/driver-cor-springlike-effect.aspx

 

Take Action with Students

         Students could find the coefficient of restitution of various sport balls. Before they begin have students predict which of the balls they think will have the greatest COR and which will have the least. Encourage students to make multiple trials with each ball and follow practices that will ensure as much accuracy as possible. You should approve their written procedure before they begin their efforts. Their findings should be published in such a way that results can be shared with the entire class.

         The graph that follows shows what happens when the coefficient of restitution of a driver is changed. Analyze what happens as the COR changes. What distance could a golf ball be hit with a club that had a COR of .90? What distance could a golf ball be hit with a club that had a COR of 1.0? (From: http://www.tutelman.com/golf/swing/golfSwingPhysics4.php)

 

         Students could find the COR of various everyday objects. They might examine items such as marbles, a wooden ball, and a ball that they make out of rubber bands. They might be surprised at what bounces. Before they begin have students predict which of the objects they think will have the greatest COR and which has the least. Encourage students to make multiple trials with each ball and follow practices that will ensure as much accuracy as possible. You should approve their written procedure before they begin their efforts. Their findings should be published is such a way that results can be shared with the entire class.

 

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         Decide which COR formula you would like to have your students use for the following problems:

         You drop an old golf ball five times from a height of 100 cm. The recorded bounces were 73 cm, 72 cm, 74 cm, 74 cm, and 76 cm. Find the COR.

         You drop a tennis ball five times from a height of 100 cm. The recorded bounces were 51 cm, 50 cm, 49cm, 52 cm, and 51 cm. Find the COR.

         You drop a pool ball ball five times from a height of 100 cm. The recorded bounces were 65 cm, 60 cm, 66 cm, 64 cm, and 67 cm. Find the COR.

         You drop a wooden ball five times from a height of 100 cm. The recorded bounces were 34 cm, 41 cm, 39 cm, 35 cm, and 33 cm. Find the COR.

         You drop a ball bearing five times from a height of 100 cm. The recorded bounces were 35 cm, 36 cm, 37 cm, 35 cm, and 36 cm. Find the COR.

         You drop a marble five times from a height of 100 cm. The recorded bounces were 40 cm, 43 cm, 47 cm, 42 cm, and 43 cm. Find the COR.

         You drop a rubber band ball five times from a height of 100 cm. The recorded bounces were 67 cm, 68 cm, 70 cm, 67 cm, and 70 cm. Find the C.O.R.

         You drop an wiffle ball five times from a height of 100 cm. The recorded bounces were 51 cm, 48 cm, 47 cm, 46 cm, and 46 cm. Find the COR.

 

 

 

Encourage inquiry using a strategy modeled on the research-based science writing heuristic. Student work will vary in complexity and depth depending on grade level, prior knowledge, and creativity. Use the prompts liberally to encourage thought and discussion. Student Copy Masters begin on page 15.

 

 Explore Understanding

Guide a discussion to find out what students know about energy of compressions and collisions. Use resources such as the following:

         https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3j-o3UXRSI&feature=related

         http://www.golffredericksburg.com/Zones/Golf/TitleistGolfBallPhilosophy

         http://darrengolsby.com/golf-ball-compression/3947

         https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qjRWLGYncU )

 

After breaking the ice on the topic you might move groups of students to the four corners of the room. In each corner, groups will discuss collisions and compression (or an aspect of collisions and compression that you’ve assigned to each corner) to activate their background knowledge. Four corners can be highly engaging for students and only requires 5 to 10 minutes. Use the following or similar prompts to start students talking.

         One experience I have had with collision/compression is….

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         The video describes....

         Golfers are able to compress the golf ball by....

         I experience the energy of collisions and compressions everyday when…

         One way I think I could change golf to make better use of collisions/compressions is….

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         Other sports that have concerns about coefficient of restitution are….

         Things that affect collisions/compressions include….

         Sometimes, collisions/compressions make golf more difficult, such as when….

         Sometimes, compression is necessary, such as when....

         The engineer/scientist can help golfers by….

         I’ve seen _____ related to this topic....

         Some factors controlling coefficient of restitution are....

 

Show SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions and encourage students to take notes while they watch about coefficient of restitution and expert recommendations. Continue the discussion of how a design team might optimize the COR to improve the game of golf, using the following or similar prompts:

         When I watched the video, I thought about….

         I learned from the video that….

         Something in the video that I didn’t understand was….

         One problem that a design team might try to solve is….

         The experts in the video explained that….

         Variables influencing the potential solutions include….

         Our efforts might be limited by.…

         Engineering has improved compression in golf by….

 

 Identify Problems

Stimulate small-group discussion with the prompt: This video makes me think about these problems…. Then have small groups list questions they have about improving the COR in a clubface to be as close to 1.0 as possible or identify the mass of a golf club that would compress a ball the optimal amount. Ask groups to choose one question and phrase it in such a way as to reflect an engineering problem that is researchable and/or testable. Bring groups together to discuss/share problems. Remind students that engineering problems usually have multiple solutions. Some example questions that reflect engineering design problems are:

         What factors can be changed that might improve the COR?

         What changes that can be made to a golf ball and still have it fall within the constraints set by the rules of golf?

         Would increasing/reducing the COR improve a golfer's performance?

         What is the optimal way to determine the mass of a golf club that would compress a ball and send it flying the greatest distance?

         What is the ideal way to determine if a ball is being compressed the optimal amount?

         Which has a greater effect? Improving the COR or improving the athlete’s performance?

         How can a design team predict how their improvements will work on the golf course?

         What is the optimal way to improve a golf club without violating the rules about COR?

         What materials would be needed to improve the COR?

 

 

 

 

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 Investigate Design Problems

Choose one of the following options based on your students’ knowledge, creativity, and ability level and your available materials. Actual materials needed would vary greatly based on these factors as well.

 

 Materials and the Inquiry Process

Allow time for students to examine and manipulate the materials that are available. Doing so often aids students in refining their questions or prompts new ones that should be recorded for future investigation.

         To explore the coefficient of restitution by designing a surface that will have the greatest trampoline effect: Students might use scraps of wood, cardboard, metal, concrete, rubber, or plastic, springs, sponges, plastic foam, plastic bottles, glue, and rubber bands.

         To explore the coefficient of restitution when designing a club head that would best compress a ping pong ball: Students might use meter sticks (golf club shaft), wooden blocks (in pairs by size), rubber bands, masking tape, large wooden dowels (or round broom sticks), ping pong balls (one star balls should be easier to compress), bag ties, smaller blocks of wood, metal washers (or other weights), equal-sized clumps of clay and anything else that you might think will help.

         Measuring tools such as meter sticks, stopwatches, magnifying lenses, electronic balances, spring scales, smart phone video cameras, graduated cylinders, protractors, rulers or measuring tape, and calculators might also be useful in the design process.

 

Safety Considerations: You and students should wear cover goggles. Review safe use of tools and measurement devices as needed. Augment your own safety procedures with NSTA’s Safety Portal at http://www.nsta.org/portals/safety.aspx.

 

 Open Choice Approach(Copy Master page 15)

1.      Give students time to discuss their various questions. Groups might agree on one problem for which they will design a solution, or each group might evaluate different problems and solutions. Some ideas include designing a ball that has a COR closest to 1, exploring the mass of a club head that would best compress a ping pong ball, or determining what type of surface you could drop a golf ball on that might yield the highest COR, could serve as a models for this activity. To help students envision their investigations, use prompts such as the following:

         The design problem we are solving is….

         Materials we could use to implement our design are….

         The science concepts involved in our design include….

         The math concepts involved in our design include….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         Barriers to success that we anticipate are….

         Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

2.      Lead discussionsto establish the criteria and constraints within which solutions might be designed. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money.

         We think we can solve the problem by....

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         Our criteria for success are….and we will determine them by....

         Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

3.      Have students determine the dependent variable they will use to evaluate their design. Check the students' understandings of each variable, such as thecovering of the golf ball, mass of clubhead, or density of the surface on to which the ball was dropped. To do this, have students determine other variables associated with the problem they are trying to solve. Then have them determine what data/evidence they need to collect to evaluate the success of their design.

4.      Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection. Work with students to develop safe procedures that control variables and enable them to make accurate measurements. Insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Information we need to understand before we can start our investigation is....

         We will change the structure of the surface we are bouncing the ball on toby....

         We will test our prototype or model by….

         We will make design decisions, or changes to the independent variable, such as … to observe what happens to the dependent variable.

         The data we will collect are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

5.      Allow students to spend some time working with the materials they have decided to use to implement their design. As students work with the materials, suggest that they reexamine their problem(s) and write down the procedures they intend to follow and how they will test their design and collect the data necessary to revise their design. Collecting evidence to promote future iterations and innovations is a critical step in the engineering design cycle. Guide students with prompts such as the following.

         Information we need to understand before designing our golf ball includes….

         We will construct our prototype or model by….

         While constructing our prototype or model we will….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

         Thinking about future innovation we….

         We will represent our data by….

         Mathematical models we can use in our investigation include….

6.      Be sure to work with students to develop safe procedures that keep the variables not being tested constant, allowing them to make accurate measurements.

7.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution, as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to optimize their solutions and what they have learned. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

 

 Focused Approach(Copy Master pages 16–17)

The following exemplifies one way students might design solutions to problems they identify after watching SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions. Give students leeway in determining exactly how they will build and test their designs, but insist that they get your approval on their procedures before they start any investigation. You might include constraints for issues of

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safety, time, or materials.

1.      Give students time to discuss their selected problem(s). Allow time for groups to examine all of the materials available to them. Guide whole-class or small-group discussions to identify the problem being solved and then to identify criteria and constraints against which solutions will be developed. For example, the surfaces we will design (which will replicate the golf ball being hit by a golf club) will incorporate a trampoline effect. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time, or money. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is….

         We are designing a solution that will….

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit potential solutions are....

         We will make a model surface to....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design includes….

2.      Encourage students to think about how they can design and construct a surface that will transfer more energy back to the ball, considering variables such as density, compression, and the trampoline effect. Students may need to be prompted to think about the ideas of composites, combinations of materials, and surfaces. Guide the class to establish criteria and constraints for the solution to the problem. Remind students that criteria are factors by which they can judge the success of their effort and that constraints are limitations to the effort and are often related to materials, time,and money. Use prompts such as the following:

         The problem we are solving is....

         Factors influencing the … of a include….

         We can build a model of a … using….

         In the video….

         Constraints we must deal with include….

         One thing we will need to do with the ... is....

         We’re not going to use _____ because we think it/they will….

         Another thing we will need to do with the ... is....

         We think ourchanges will increase the of the ... because....

         The … we have designed is similar to an actual … because….

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are….

3.      Students should brainstorm a plan for their evidence collection strategy prior to designing the surface on to which they will drop a golf ball. Provide students with the following prompts to guide how they will collect evidence for evaluating their design:

         We will test our design by….

         We will change the design of the surface that we will drop a golf ball on in the following ways to see the relationship to the dependent variable….

         The data (dependent variable) we will collect are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

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         We will use evidence such as _____ to determine the need for additional changes such as….

4.      Students plan and design a surface on to which to drop their golf ball from the materials at hand. Students might design and build their surface from layers of materials that might have a trampoline effect. It might also be designed from a framework with a flexible face, or a combination of other materials. Other students might design a ball of materials that will allow it to bounce ashigh as possible when dropped from a given height. Encourage multiple trials of dropping the golf ball or student-designed ball. The height and manner of the drop should remain constant.

5.      After communicating information to the class about their solution and reflecting on their own solution as well as those of other groups, allow the class or small groups to go through a redesign process to improve their solutions. Encourage students to identify limitations of the design and testing process. Were there variables that they did not identify earlier that had an impact on their designs?

 

 Media Research Option

Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy –

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

Groups might have questions that are best explored using print media and online resources. Students might begin by researching why they are doing this media investigation. They might compare why some of the designs they learn about are better than others. Students should brainstorm to form a list of key words and phrases they could use in Internet search engines that might result in resources that will help them answer the question. Review how to safely browse the Web, how to evaluate information on the Internet for accuracy, and how to correctly cite the information found. Suggest students make note of any interesting tangents they find in their research effort for future inquiry. Encourage students with prompts such as the following:

         Words and phrases associated with our question are….

         The reliability of our sources was established by….

         The science and math concepts that underpin a possible solution are….

         Our research might feed into an engineering design solution, such as….

         To conduct the investigation safely using the Internet, we will….

 

 Related Internet Resources

Coefficient of Restitution:

         http://golf.about.com/cs/golfterms/g/bldef_cor.htm

         http://wishongolf.com/how-does-cor-affect-your-golf-game/

 

 

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Golf Club Design:

         http://www.popularmechanics.com/outdoors/sports/technology/a-brief-history-of-the-golf-club-15478412

         http://www.popularmechanics.com/outdoors/recreation/the-science-of-the-perfect-golf-shot#slide-5

         http://www.golfwrx.com/121878/taylormade-sldr-driver-editor-review/

Videos:

         https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qwu51E_zUx8 ;

 

 Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

As students carry out their design investigations, ensure they record their observations and measurements. Students should analyze their observations in order to state one or more claims. Encourage students with this prompt: As evidenced by… I claim… because…. or I claim our design (was/was not) successful because….

 

An example claim might be:

As evidenced bythe results of dropping our golf ball onto our designed surface, I claim our surface was slightly like a trampoline because on multiple trials the golf ball rebounded higher than it did when we dropped it on the uniform surface that established the standard against which to judge our efforts.

 

Present and Compare Findings

Encourage students to prepare presentations that outline their inquiry investigations so they can compare results with others. Students might do a Gallery Walk through the presentations and write peer reviews, as would be done on published science and engineering findings. Students might also make comparisons with material they find on the Internet, information presented in the video, or an expert they chose to interview. Remind students to credit their original sources in their comparisons. Elicit comparisons from students with prompts such as:

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those that I found on the Internet in that….

 

Students might make comparisons like the following:

My results were similar to those of other students in that although we struggled mightily, the constraints that we all agreed on kept us from achieving a higher coefficient of restitution.

 

 Reflect and Redesign

Students should reflect on their understanding, thinking about how their ideas have changed or what they know now that they didn’t before. They should also evaluate their own designs in light of others’ presentations and propose changes that will optimize their designs. Encourage reflection, using prompts such as the following:

         My ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson because evidence showed that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         My ideas changed in the following ways….

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         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         I now understand or could teach other students….

 

 Inquiry Assessment

See the rubric included in the student Copy Masters on page 18.

 

 

 

Integrate Video in Instruction 

         Bellringer:Project images from SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions, such as those at 0:05, 0:07, 0:12; 1:15; 2:22; and 3:55, and have students write about what is going on from a science point of view. After students have completed their observations for each still picture you could play the surrounding segment so that students could assess how they have done.

         Homework:Watch SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions from 1:17–2:09. The graphic explains how energy is transferred from the swinging golf club to the stationary ball. Do some research to make sure you understand kinetic and potential energy, compression, elastic and inelastic collisions, and elastic potential energy. Collisions and compressions take place all around us. When a basketball bounces off the court it collides and compresses. Balls collide during the very mathematical game of billiards. Think of collisions that you have participated in. Draw and label diagrams to explain what occurred in two collisions with which you are familiar.

 

 Using the 5E Approach?

If you use a 5E approach to lesson plans, consider incorporating video in these Es:

         Explore: Use the Design Investigations section of the Facilitate ENGINEERING DESIGN Inquiry to support your lessons on collisions and compressions, coefficient of restitution, and Newton's Second and Third Laws of Motion. Main concepts should include how energy is transferred in collisions and where it goes.

         Elaborate: Elaborate: Show students SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions, focusing on the sections from 0:55–1:22 and 2:11–2:19 that discusses how collisions and compressions occur when the golf ball is hit and what happens to the golf ball after it is hit. Have students research everyday collisions. They might look at automobile collisions or the impacts that result in contact sports. Students should elaborate on how energy is lost in the collisions they examine and what results because energy is lost.

 

Connect to … English/Language Arts

Why won't golf companies list the COR (Coefficient of Restitution) for their golf clubs? Good question! Rewatch 3:40–4:26 of SOG: Energy in Collisions and Compressions. It explains that COR is so important that the USGA regulate it. You would think that the club makers would use it as the gold standard. The comment by Ranger Rick at http://www.golfwrx.com/forums/topic/750771-why-wont-golf-companies-list-the-corcoefficient-of-restitution-in-their-golf-clubs/ says it all. What it doesn't do is help you to understand COR for fairway woods and irons. Before reading the comments list four to five

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questions you have about listing COR for buyers. Do a close reading of the article. As you read, text code the passage with the following symbols: + = information I already know; ! = information that is new; ? = I have questions about this; ____ = information that interests me; cor = information about Coefficient of Restitution. If you take the time to read the very lengthy explanation by Tom Wishon, you'll have a better idea of what club manufacturers are doing. Take what you've learned and create a poster/diagram that would meet the needs of Dugan408. Do you think that posters like this would help golfers and hurt club manufacturers?

 

 Connect to … History

Go to https://www.nbclearn.com/science-of-golf and watch SOG: Evolution of the Golf Ball from 0.26–2:58. While watching the video take notes on what the experts say about the historical development of the golf ball. Pay close attention to materials that are used to make each ball. After taking a bit of time to review and think things over (and perhaps squeeze in a little research) develop an annotated timeline that analyzes the coefficient of restitution in each iteration of the golf ball.

 

 Use Video as a Writing Prompt

Does this look like a wanted poster? What’s the marketing advantage of that? These golf balls look like every other golf ball. They’re white. They have dimples. They have a higher CORthan the USGA allows. Watch the video again from 2:19–4:26. Write a story about your participation in a weekend foursome (four golfers playing together) in which one of the players was using the Bandit.

 

(Photo from www.banditgolfusa.com)

                                         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Energy in Collisions and Compressions

Use this as a guide to design and test your solution according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Identify Problems

Our class discussion and the video make me think about problems such as….

 

Design Investigations

Choose your materials and brainstorm with your teammates to discuss how you will make and test your design solution. Take notes on your discussions. Use these prompts to help you:

         The materials we will use include….

         Our criteria for success are….

         Acceptable evidence for a successful solution would include….

         The constraints within which we will work are….

         We will record and organize our data using….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your data and observations from your tests using tables and/or graphs.

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your results and make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists and engineers do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) what I found on the Internet in that….

 

Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the experts, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         In redesigning innovations we incorporated included….

         I now understand or could teach other students….

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Energy in Collisions and Compressions

Use this as a guide to design and test a flexible surface on which to drop a golf ball or a golf ball designed with a greater COR according to criteria and constraints established by the class. Record all of your notes and observations in your science notebook.

 

Ask Beginning Questions

Why is coefficient of restitution important to consider in the design of golf clubs and golf balls?

 

Identify Problems

How can we make a golf ball with a greater COR?

How can we make a surface to drop a golf ball on that will be flexible and act like a trampoline?

What factors should we consider changing?

How can we be certain that our design will be an accurate test of the science concepts we are examining?

 

Design Investigations

Discuss with your group how you might implement your design with the available materials. Use these prompts to help you.

         The science concepts that we will need to use in creating our design include….

         We think we can solve the problem by....

         Our criteria for success are....

         Constraints that might limit the range of potential solutions are....

         Acceptable evidence that would support our claims of success for our design include….

         Our design will look like....

         We think these changes willincrease the height to which the ball will reboundbecause....

         We will represent our data in the following way(s)….

         We will compare the data from each trial by….

         We will analyze the overall data by….

         To conduct our investigation safely, we will….

 

Test Your Model

Record and organize your observations and data in tables such as the one below. In the Design Changes column describe the changes you made to the surface on to which you dropped your golf ball and how the height the ball bounced changed. Make sketches of the changes you make to your design. 

Use the equation     c = coefficient of restitution (dimensionless), h = bounce height, H = drop height.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Design Iteration

H(cm)

h(cm)

Design Changes

1

 

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

 

Trial

4

 

 

 

Trial

5

 

 

 

Average h

 

 

 

COR

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

Trial 1

 

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

 

Ideas for Analyzing Data

         Describe how the changes you made to the surface on to which you dropped your golf ball made it rebound.

         Describe how your data helped you make decisions to change your design.

         What design changes caused the greatest impact on observed results?

 

Make a Claim Backed by Evidence

Analyze your data and then make one or more claims based on the evidence your data shows. Make sure that the claim goes beyond summarizing the relationship between the variables.

 

My Evidence

My Claim

My Reason

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present and Compare Findings

Listen to presentations of other groups and create a peer review as scientists do for one another. You might also compare your findings with those of experts in the video or that you have access to, or material on the Internet. How do your findings compare? Be sure to give credit to others when you use their findings in your comparisons.

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of the experts in the video in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) those of my classmates in that….

         My findings are similar to (or different from) information I found on the Internet in that….

 

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Reflect and Redesign

Think about what you learned. How does it change your thinking? Your design?

         I claim that my ideas have changed from the beginning of this lesson in that….

         My design would be more effective if I _____ because I learned that….

         When thinking about the claims made by the expert, I am confused about....

         One part of the investigation I am most proud of is….

         One thing I understand or could teach others….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Criteria

1 point

2 points

3 points

Initial problem

Problem had too simple of a solution, was off topic, or otherwise was not researchable or testable.

Problem was researchable or testable but too broad or not answerable by the chosen investigation.

Problem was clearly stated, was researchable or testable, and showed direct relationship to investigation.

Investigation design

The design of the investigation did not support a response to the initial question or provide a solution to the problem.

While the design supported the initial problem, the procedure used to collect data (e.g., number of trials, or control of variables) was insufficient.

Variables were clearly identified and controlled as needed with steps and trials that resulted in data that could be used to answer the question or solve the problem.

Variables (if applicable)

Either the dependent or independent variable was not identified.

While the dependent and independent variables were identified, no controls were present.

Variables identified and controlled in a way that resulting data can be analyzed and compared.

Safety procedures

Basic laboratory safety procedures were followed, but practices specific to the activity were not identified.

Some, but not all, of the safety equipment was used and only some safe practices needed for this investigation were followed.

Appropriate safety equipment used and safe practices adhered to.

Data and Analysis (based on iterations)

Observations were not made or recorded, and data are unreasonable in nature, or do not reflect what actually took place during the investigation.

Observations were made, but were not very detailed, or data appear invalid or were not recorded appropriately.

Detailed observations were made and properly recorded and data are plausible and recorded appropriately.

Claim

No claim was made or the claim had no relationship to the evidence used to support it.

Claim was marginally related to evidence from investigation.

Claim was backed by investigative or research evidence.

Findings comparison

Comparison of findings was limited to a description of the initial problem.

Comparison of findings was not supported by the data collected.

Comparison of findings included both methodology and data collected by at least one other entity.

Reflection

Student reflection was limited to a description of the procedure used.

Student reflections were not related to the initial problem.

Student reflections described at least one impact on thinking.

 

 

 

 

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Science OF GOLF: Energy in Collisions and Compressions

Standards Connections

 

 Next Generation Science Standards

The following inquiry investigations might be part of a summative assessment for these performance expectations. See NGSS documents for additional related Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Mathematics.

MS.Energy

MS-PS3-2. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.

MS-PS3-5. Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

 

Engineering Design

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-2. Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4. Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

HS-ETS1-1.Analyze a major global challengeto specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

 

 Common Core State Standards Connections: ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions

RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content

WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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